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StaCLxJU) YboXuoCJlJLJ^rrO 



BOOK W<2>5" 


The Muhetnaticad" Works of the 
Right Reverend Fdclier in, God, 
John \V.i&KiNs,late Lord IVifhop 

I. A Difcoveryofa New World : Or a 
il, Difcourfe pending to* prove, Tiiat 
'tis probable theretniy be another habitable 
World in the Moon, With a Difcourie con- 
cerning the probability of a pafTage thither. 
Unto which is added, a Difcourfe concerning 
a New Planet:; tending to prove, That is 
probable our Earth is one of thePlanets, 

2. Mathematical JWagick: QttHeWcm- 
ders that may bepesformed by Meefasnical 
Geometry. In-^wo Books. Cgneejqintj 

ch»mmal< ' 

Meehitmbal-^ .; . 


Being one of tnemofl: eatie, pkafoav ufeful, 
(and yet moft'negle'dred) part of Matherm- 
ticks,not before treated of in this Language. 

3. Mercury : Or the Secret and Swift 
MerTenger. Shewing how a Man may 
with Privacy and Speed communicate bis 
Thoughts to a Friend at any diftanee. 

Sold by Richard tMwhi, near th: Ottford- 
Ar-ns in ^jftvic'i^tane. 

O R T H E 

Secret and Swift 



How a Man may with Privacy and 
Speed communicate his Thought. 
to a Friend at any diftance. 


By the R ight Reverend Father in God, 
John Wilkins, late Lord 
Bilhop of C h e s T e r. 

L N DO A 7 , 

Printed for %\ix\)> X*;faV^}(iT,near th e 
Oxford- Arms in \Variv;ck-lMe.\6<)<\. 


Right Honorable 


Lord Berfyey, Baron of 
Berfyey,Mobrdy,Segrave y 
and Bruce , and Knight 
of the Noble Order of 
the Bath. 

My Lord, 

I Do here once more prefent your 
Lordfljip Tbitb the fruit of my 
leiliire Studks, as a Teftimony cf 
my readinefs to ferVe you in theje 
facrtd matters, to which I del'ot&my 
A j my»e 


more ferious hours. 1 ' (hould not have 
prefumed to this Dedication, hadlnol 
been encouraged by that generoufnefs 
and fweetnefs of Difpofition, which 
does fo eminently adopt your Lord- 
Jbips Place and Abilities, 
C If your Lord(hip pleafe. to excufe 
this boldnefs, and to Vouchfafe this 
Pamphlet a (belter under your fa- 
vourable Patronage, you (ball thereby 
incourage rne in thofe higher Studies, 
"ph'tch may he jmore agreeable to that 
relation, wherein 1 /land, as being 

Your Lordfliip's Servant 
and Chaplain, 

j. w. 

T O 



THat which, firft occafioned this 
Dilcourfe, wa8 the reading of 
a little Pamphlet, ftiled, Nuntius ln- 
MmatuS) commonly afcribed to a late 
Reverend Bifhop ; wherein lie affirms 
that there are certain ways to difc 
courle witlva Friend, though he were 
in a dole Dungeon , in a befieged 
City, or a hundred miles off. 

Which promifes,at the firft perufal, 
did rather raife my Wonder than Be- 
lief, having before that time obferved 
nothing that might give any fatis- 
fa&ion in thefe particulars. And I 
fhould have efteemed them altoge- 
ther fabulous had \i not been for the 
credir of their reputed Author. 

A 4 After 

After this, I did colleffc all fuch 
Notes to this purpofe, as I met with 
in the courfe of my other Studies. 

From whence when I had received 
full fatisfa&ion, I dio* for mine own 
further delight compofe them into* 
this method. 

I have already attained mine owrf 
ends, both in the delight of compofing 
this, and the occafion of publifhingit. 
And therefore need not either fear 
the Cenfure of others, or beg their 
Favour. I could never yet difcern,that 
any Reader hath fhewed the more 
Charity for the Author's befpeaking 
it. Farewell. 

J. w. 

T O 

To Mercury the Elder, 
On the moft tearfled Mercury the Younger. 

REfi Maja^s Son, foretimes Interpreter 
Of gods, and to us menthtir Meflenger ; 
Take not fuch pains as thou hafi done of old) 
To teach men Hieroglyphicks, and to unfold 
Egyptian hidden characters, and how 
Men writ in dark obfcurity : For now 
Trithemius and Selertus hath are grown 
Sitch Cryptographers, as they fearce will own 
Thee for their Mafter ; and Decipherers know 
Such ftcret ways to n>rite t thou neer didfi /how. 
Thefe are but Artifis which thou didfi infpire ; 
But now thou of a Mercury art Sire 
Of thine own name, a P.ofl with whom the wind t 
Should it contend, would he left far behind. 
Whofe meffrge as thy metal (I 'r ikes the go Id, 
Quite through a wedge of fiver tracontrofd, 
And in a moments J pace doth pafs as far 
As from the Artick to the Antanick Star. 


So proving what is /aid of influence ', 
May notvbefaid of his intelligence, 
They neither of them having fuch a quality 
As a relation to Locality : 
No places diftance hindring their Commerce, 
Who freely traffick through the Vniverfe ; 
And in a minute can a Voyage make 
Over the Oceans univerfal Lake. 
This Son of thine , could any words orpraifi 
Hi* Learning, Worth, or Reputation raife, 
We fhouldhe Suiters to him tobeftow 
Encomiums on himielf* which we do owe 
Vnto his worth, and ufe that Eloquence, 
Which as his own, muft claim preeminence ; 
For thee, "'tis Glory enough thou haft a Son 
Of Art, that hath thy/elf in Art out -done. 

Sir Francis Kjnuflon, Kc. 


To the unknown rfuthor. 

OF old who to the common good apply'd, 
Or mind, or mearfs, for it were Deify'd : 
But chiefly fijch, who hew Inventions found ; 
Bacchus for Wine,Cero tnattill d the ground. 
I know no reafon time fhould breed liich odds, 
(W'have warrant for't) men now may be ftil'd 
By hiding who thou art,feek not to mi(s,(god& 
The glory due to fuch a Work as this ; 
But fer thy name, that thou mayft have the 
Left to the unknown God we Altars raile.(praite, 

Anthony Jucher, Efqj 


To my Friend the Author. 

TOpraifethy work, were to anticipate 
Thy Readers judgment, and to injure Fate ; 
Injufiice to thyfelf\ for real worth 
Needs not Arts flattery tofet it forth. 
Some choofe fele&ed Wits to write, ^Friends, 
Whofe Verfes, when the work fails t make amends. 
So as the buyer has his penny-worth, 
Though what the Author write prove fpumy froth, 
"thou, of a. humour crofs to that, hajt chofe 
A Friend or two, whofe Verfe hops like rough profe, 
From whofe inexpert vain thou canft not look 
For lines that may enhance the price o'th* book. 
Let it commend itfclf, all we intend 
Is but to[hewtheWorld y thou art our Friend. 

Richard Hatton, Efq; 


To the Reader. 

REader, this Author has not long ago 
Found out another World to this below! 
Though that alone might merit greatrenown, 
Yet in this book he goes beyond the Moon* 
Beyond \h$Moon indeed* foriiere you fee 
That he from thence hajth fetcht down Mer- 
One that doth tell us rfiings both Jfravge 

and mw\ 
And yet believe't they're not more itrarige 

•than true. 
I'm loth to tell thee what rare things (hey 

Read thou the book, and then thou'lt tell 
them me. 

Tob. Wirlrick I. C. Dod. 


To his honoured Friend J. W. on his 
learned Traft, 

Tlie Secret ancl Swift Mefjenger. 

INimifable Sir, we here difcern 
Maxims the Stazirite.hiwfc\( might learn. 
Were Tlato novy alive lieM yield to, You 
Confeffing fomcthjng might be Known ant»r. 
Fre(h Herefies (NeW^riothings,) ftill appear 
As Almanacks-, the Births of every Year. 
This T>tttcb-min writes a Comment ; thztTra/iflates ; 
A third fnnfcribu h Your Pen alone Creates 
Mew neceffiry Sciences » This Art 
Lay undifcoyer'd atthe. Worlds- fifth paxC. 
But Secrecy's n >>w publiflt-'d ; You reveal 
By Pemonitration how we may conceal. 

Oar legates are but Wen, atid often may 
Great State-affairs unwillingly betray : 
Gxught by feme fitting Spies, or tell tale Win** 
Which dig up Secrets in the deepeft Mine. 
Sometimes, like Fire pent in, they outward break, 
And 'caufe they fhould Be filent, therefore fpeak. 

/ Nor are Kings Writings* fafej To guard their Fame, 
Like Scevda, they wi(h their Hand i'th' Flame. 
Ink turns to Blood ; they oft participate 
By Wax and Quill fid IcarUs his Fat;. 
Hence Noble-mens bad writing proves a Plot : 
Their Letters are but Lines, their Names a" Knot. 


But now they {hall no -more Seal thdr own Faff j 
No Letters prove Killing-, or Capitall. 
Things pafs unknown, and each Ambaffador's 
$fr i& as the Breaft of facwd ConfeiTors : 
Such as the Inquifition cantiot fee ; 
Such as are forc'd neither by Rack, nor Fee. 
Swift Secrecy defcends to Humane-jPowers ; 
That whieh was Pluto's Helmet, now is Ours. 
We (hall not henceforth be in pay for air, 
Tranfported Words being. dear as precious Ware ; 
Our Thoughts will now airive before they're ftale; 
They (hall no more wait on the Carriers Ale, 
And Hoftefs, two Land- R&noraes r which bind 
All to ijTortoife pace, though Words be Wind. 
This Book's a better Ark* we brook noftay, 
Maugre the deepeft Flood, or fouleft Way. 
Commerce of Goods and Souls we owe to Two, 
(Whofe Fames (hall now be Twins) Noah and Yoa, 
Each Bird is turn'd a Farrot, and we fee 
JEfop's Beafts made more eloquent by thee. 
Wooers again may wing their fetter'd Love, 
By Noajfs trufty Meflenger the Dove. 
Torches which us'd only to help our fight, 
(Like heavenly fires) dogive our Reafon Light. 
Deaths Harbingers, Arrows, and Bullets prove 
Like Cupid's Darts, Ambaffadors of Love. 
Then your diviner Hieroglyphic}^ tell, 
How we may Landskips read, and Pictures fpell. 
You teach how Clouds inform, how Smoaks advife; 
Thus Saints with Incenfe talk to Deities. 


Thus by dumb Creatures we inftru&ed are, 
As the Wife Men were tutor'd by a Star. 

Since we true Serpents-tike* do little wrong 
With 3ny other member but the Tongue; 
You tell us how we may b^y Geftures talk : 
How Feet are made to fpeak, as well as walk : 
How Eyes difcourfe, how myftick Nods contrive 5 
Making our Knowledge too, Intuitive, 
A Bell no noife but Rhetoric}^ affords 5 
Our Mutick Notes are Speeehes, Sounds are 'Words. 
Without a Trope there's Language in a Flow r, 
Conceits are fmelt without a Metaphor. 
Dark Subtleties we now (hall Toon define, 
Each Organ's turn'd the fenfe oiD'tfcipline. 
'Tis to yonx Care we owe that we may fend 
Bufinefc unknown to any but our Friend. 
That which is Englilh Friendship to my Brother, 
May be thought Qreek or Non- fenfe to another. 
We now may Himcrs Iliads confine, 
Not in a Nut-ihell, but a Point, or Line. 
Which Am though't feem to exceed Faith, yet who 
Tries it, will find both Truth and Reafon too. 
'Tis not like Juglers tricks, ub/urd, when mown i 
But more and more admtr'd; the more 'tis known. 

Writing'-* .an A& of Emanatien, 

And Thoughts fpeed quick and far as day doth rutt 

<%ickardmfl. C. C. Ox. 


Secret and Swifc 



The Dependence of this l^powle&ge in 
Nature. The Authors that have 
treamd of it* Its Relation to the 
Art of Grammar. 

EVery rational Creature, being 
of an imperfed and depen- 
dant Happinefs, is therefore 
naturally endowed with an 
Ability to communicate its own 
Thoughts and Intentions ; that fo 
by mutual Services, it might the 
better promote it felf in the Profecu- 
tion of its own Well-being. 

B And 

2 The Secret and Swift 

And becaule there is (b vafl: a dif- 
ference betwixt a Spirit and a Body, 
therefore hath the Wifdom of Provi- 
dence contrived a diftintl: Way and 
Means,whereby they are each of them 
inabled to Difcourfe, according to the 
Variety of their feveral Natures. 
jsquinas, The A ngels or Spiritual Subftances, 
^ a' P er infinuationem fpecierum, (as the 
zmckJk' Schoolmen fpeak.) By insinuating of 
Ofmbus the Species, or an unveiling of their 
ul'iTig. own Matures in the Knowledge of 
* fuch Particulars as they would dis- 
cover to another. And fince they are 
of an Homogeneous and immaterial EC- 
fence, therefore do they hear, and 
know, and fpeak, not with feveral 
parts, but with their whole Sub- 
ftance. And though the Apoftle 
mentions the Tongue ofAngels,ytt that 
I r ' 1 3 ' is only Per concefjionem, & ex hypotheft. 
But now, Men that have Orgamcal 
Bodies , cannot communicate their 
Thoughts fb eaile and immediate a 
way. And therefore have need of 
fome Corporeal Jnftruments, both 


Messenger. j 

for the Receiving and Conveying of 
Knowledge. Unto both which Fun- 
ctions, Nature hath defigned feveral 
parts. Amongft the reft, the Ear is 
chieHy the Senfe of Difcipline or 
Learning, and the Tongue the Inftru- 
ment of Teaching. The Communion 
betwixt both thefe, is by Speech or 
Language, which was but one at firft, 
but hath fince been confounded into 
feveral kinds. And Experience now 
fhews, that a man is equally difpofed, 
for the Learning of all, according as 
Education fhall direft him. Which 
would pot be, if (as fbme fondly con- 
ceive) any one of them were Natural y aa ^ w 
unto us. For Intus exiftens prohibet sacr.phiiof; 
altenum. ca P- 3- 

Or fuppofe that a man could be c */. Rfod. 
brought up to the Speaking of ano ; <*»*• l &- 
ther Tongue, yet this would nof hin- l f\ 2 . 9: 
der, but that he fhould ftill retain 
his Knowledge of that which was 
Natural. For if thole which are got- 
ten by Art do not hinder one ano- 
ther, much left would they be any 
B 2 impe. 

7k Secret and Swift 

impediment to that which is from 
Niure. And according to this it 
will follow, that moft men fhould be 
of a double Language , which is 
evidently falfe. Whence likewife 
you may guefs at the Abfurdity of 
their Inquiries, who have fought to 
find out the Primitive Tongue, by 
bringing up Infants infuch filent foli- 
tr.ry"places, where they might not 
hear the Speech of others. 

Languages are fo far Natural unto 
us, as other Arts and Sciences. A 
Man is born without any of them, 
but yet capable of all. 

Now, becaufe Words are only for 
tliofe that are prefent both in Time 
and Place ; therefore to thefe there 
hath been added,the Invention of Let- 
ters and Wriring,vv'hich are fuch a Re- 
prelentation of our Words ('though 
more permanent) as our Words are 
of our Thoughts. By thefe, we may 
difcourfe with them that are re- 
mote from us, not only by the di- 
stance of many Miles, but alio of 


Messenger. j 

many Ages, Hujm uft*fcimus maxime 
conftare humamtatem vita, memoriam^ ^at.mjt. 
ac homimim immortalitatemfotih Pliny. ' * 4 " c ' 1 r ' 
Quid hoc m&gnificentius ? Quid aque 
mirandum ? in quod ne mortis quidem Anti^.M. 
avida rap Actios jm ulltim habeat, faith 4 " °' 3 * 
Rhodiginus. This being the chiefeft 
means, both for the promoting of 
Humane Society, and the perpe- 
tuating our Names unto following 

How Arrange a thing this Art of 
Writing did feern at its firft Inven- 
tion, we may guels by the late dis- 
covered Americans, who were ama- 
zed to fee men converfe with Books, 
and could fcarce make themlelves 
believe that a Paper fhould fpeak ; 
efpecially, when after all their Atten- 
tion and hftning to any Writing (as 
their Cuftom was) they could never 
perceive any Words or Sound to pro- 
ceed from it. 

There is a pretty Relation to this Hermanns 
purpofe concerning an Indian Slave, ^f s ^_ 
who being Tent by his Matter, with bmnJZf. 
B I a Basket 

The Secret and Swift 

a Basket of Figs and a Letter, did by 
the way eat up a great part of his 
Carriage, conveying the remainder 
unto the Perfon to whom he was di- 
rected, who when he had read the 
Letter, and not finding the quantity 
of Figs anfwerable to what was there 
fpoken of, he accufes the Slave of 
eating them, telling him what the 
Letter faid againft him. But the In- 
dian (notwithftanding this proof) did 
confidently abjure the Fa&, curling 
the Paper, as being a falfe and lying 
Witnefs. After this, being lent again 
with the like Carriage, and a Letter 
expreffing the juft number of Figs 
that were to be delivered, he did 
again, according to his former Pra- 
ctice, devour a great part of them 
by the way ; but before he medled 
with any, fto prevent all following 
Accufations) he firft took the Let- 
ter, and hid that under a great Stone, 
afluring himfelf, that if it did not 
fee him eat the Figs, it could ne- 
ver tell of him j but being now more 


Messenger. 7 

ftrongly accufed than before, he con* 
fefles the Fault, admiring the Divi- 
nity of the Paper, and for the future 
does promife his beft Fidelity in every 

Such ftrange Conceits did thofe 
wilder Nations entertain, concerning 
this excellent Invention. And doubt- 
lets it muft needs argue a vail Abi- 
lity both of Wit and Memory, in that 
man who did firft confine all thole 
different Sounds of Voice, (which 
feem to be almoft of infinite Variety) 
within the bounds of thofe few Let- 
ters in the Alphabet. 

The firft Inventor of this was c/«. lib. 3. 
thought to be the Egyptian Mercury, ^JsT 
who is therefore ftiled the Meffenger d'lnwntfr. 
of the Gods. To which purpofe the M>-*-c*p.6. 
Poets have furnifhed him with Wings ctLti. 
for Swift nefs and difpatch in his Lr- 1», 1.1. e.g. 
rands. And becaule the Planet of NataL p: 

t , , , ,- mes Mythol. 

that name was thought to oblerve a /. Jt M . 
more various and oblcure Revolution 
than any of the reft, therefore likewife 
did they attribute unto him fuch 
B 4 Secret 

g The Secret and Swift 

Secret and fubtle Motions, as might 
make him a trufty and private Meflen- 
ger, and fo the fitter for that Prefer- 
ment to which for this Invention they 
had advanced him. 

There is yet another way of dif- 
courfing, by Signs and Geftures ; and 
though it be not fb common in Pra- 
ftife as either of the other, yet in Na- 
ture perhaps it is before them both , 
fince Infants are able this way to ex- 
prefs themfelves,before they have the 
benefit of Speech. 

But now, becaufe none of thefe 
ways in ordinary ufe, are either fb 
Secret or Swift as fbme Exigencies 
would require ; therefore many of 
the 'Ancients have bufied themfeves 
in a further Inquiry, how both thefe 
Deficiencies may be remedied ;as con- 
ceiving that fuch a Difcovery would 
be of excellent ufe, efpecially for fbme 
Occasions that are incident to State/- 
men and Soldiers. 

That the Ignorance of Secret and 
Swift Conveyances, hath often pro- 


ved Fatal , not only to the Ruin of 
particular perfbns, but alfb of whole 
Armies and Kingdoms, may eafily 
appear to any one that is but little 
verfed in Story. And therefore the re- 
drafting of thefe may be a Subject 
worth our enquiry. 

Amongft the Ancients that have 
moft laboured in thefe Particulars, 
'\ Mneas, Cleomems, and Demotr'itm^. r ° lmct ' 
(as they are cited by * Polybius) were *^. i.\o. 
for their Inventions of this kind , 
more remarkably eminent. And that 
* Author himfelf hath given us fuch 'j^"** 
an exa£t Relation of the Know icigej^/^^ 
of Antiquity in thefe things, that 'tis 
a wonder thefe following Ages fhcu'd 
either take no more notice, or make 
no more ufe of it. Befides thefe, 
there is alfb Julius Africanus , and 
Vhilo Mechamcus, two ancient Gre- 
cians, who have likewife treated of 
this Subject. 

The Military Significations in ufe 
amongft the Rcmms, are handled by to"*** 
t Vegetiits and * Frontmus. P&stn*. 


i o The Secret and Swift 

Their Notes of Secrecy ,and Abbre- 
viation in Writing, are largely fet 

*Ld-Kotit down by * VzUrius Probns, and t'tt. 

Mtijuu. £) lllconH s. There is likewife a Volume 
of thefe, fet forth by ^anus Gruterus^ 
which for their lirft Invention are 
commonly afcribed unto Cicero and 

*Tke Father* Senectt. 

In latter times thefe particulars 
- have been more fully handled by the 
* Lib. de Abbot a Tritemius^ Theodoru; Biblian- 
f°mde Pk *'' r ' C Ba P f 'ft a Porta.Candan.SubtWJ. 1 7 . 
mgraph. de Var.C. i 2.6 . d Ifaac Cafaubon, f Johtm- 
b ne $ Walchius, & Guflnvus Selenus, h Ge- 
tommun tardus Vcfjius. * Hermannus, Hugo, and 
Unguium, divers others in particular Languages.,, 
c Lib : de Amongft the reft , our Englifh 
^Nrtl'in Ariftotle, the learned Vertdam, in that 
/EneaPo. Work truly ftiled the Advancement 
^" of Learning, hath briefly comraded 
edecrypfog. the whole Subftance of what may be 
h * Gram - faid in this Subject. Where he refers 
iuljeVr, it t0 trie Art of Grammar, noting it as a 
s«v*. deficient part. And in reference to 
vtAugm. this is it handled by moft f t hofe 

ub. Lc'.u Authors who have treated of it. 


Messenger. ii 

That Art,in its true Latitude com- 
prehending a Treaty, concerning all 
the ways of Difcourfe, whether by 
Speech,or by Writing,or by Geflure, 
together with the feveral Circum- 
stances pertaining to them. And fo 
this Subject belongs to the Mint oUtid. 
Knowledge, Expreflions being cur- 
rant for Conceits, as Mony is for Va- 

Now as it will concern a man 
that deals in Traffick, to underftand 
the feveral kinds of Mony, and that 
it may be framed of other Materials 
befides Silver and Gold : So likewile 
does it behove them, who profefs the 
Knowledge of Nature or Reafbn , 
rightly to apprehend the feveral ways 
whereby they may be exprefled. 

So that befides the ulefulnefs of 
this Subjed, for lome fpecial Occa- 
fions, it doth alfo belong unto one of 
the Liberal Arts. 

From which Considerations we 
may infer, that thele particulars are 
not fb trivial, as perhaps otherways 


1 1 The Secret and Swift 

they would feem ; and that there is 
fufRcient motive to excite any Indu- 
ftrious Spirit unto a further fearch 
after them. 

In this following Difcourfe I fhall 


i. Concerning the Secrecy of 
means, whereby to communicate our 

2. Concerning their Swiftnefs, or 
quick paffing at any great diftance. 

3. How they may be both joyned 
together in the conveyance of any 

In the prolecution of which, I fhall 
alio mention ( befides the true difco- 
veries ) moft of thofe other ways , 
whether Magical, or Fabulous ,thax are 
received upon common Tradition. 


Messenger. i? 


The Conditions requifite to Secrecy : 
The ufe of it in the Matter of Speech, 

C Fables of the Heathen. 

^Parables of Scripture. 

TO the Exan£tefs of Secrecy in 
any way of Difcourfe, there 
are thefe two Qualifications requi- 

i. That it be difficult to be un- 
folded, if it fhould be doubted of, or 

2. That it be (if pofliblej altoge- 
ther devoid of Sufpicion ; for fb far 
as it is liable to this, it may be faid to 
come fhort in the very nature of 
Secrecy ; fince what is once fufpe- 
cled, is expofed to the danger of exa- 
mination, and in a ready way to be 
difcovered ; but if not, yet a man is 
more likely to be difappointed in his 


1 4 7bc Secret and Swift 

Intentions-, when Lis Proceedings are 
mi !■. lifted. 

Both thefe Conditions together are 
to be found but in few of the fol- 
low ing Instances ; only they are here 
fpf-ciHs 1, to fhew what a man fhould 
aim at, in the Inventions of this 

The Art of fecret information in 
the general, as it includes all fignifi- 
catory Signs, may be ftiled Cryptom^ 
r.yfi^ or private Intimations. 

The particular ways of difcour- 
fing, were before intimated to be 

i. By Speaking. 

2. By Writing. 

3. By Signs or Geftures. 

According to which variety, there 
are alfo different ways of Secrecy. 

1. Cryptologia, 

2. Cry pt agraphia. 

3. Sem&ologia, 

Cryptologia, or the Secrecy of Speak- 
ing, may confift either, 

1. In 

Messenger. i 

i In the Matter. 
2. In the Words. 

i. In the Matter : When the thing 
we would utter isfb concealed under 
the expreflion of fome other matter, 
that it is not of obvious conceit. To 
which purpofe are the Metaphors, 
Allegories , and divers other Tropes 
of Oratory ; which, fo far as they 
concern the Ornament of Speech, do 
properly belong to Rbetorick, but as 
they may be applied for the Secrecy 
of Speech, fo are they reducible unto 
this part of Grammar. 

To this likewife appertains all that 
amgmatical Learning, unto which not 
only the learned Heathen, but their 
gods alfo were fo much devoted, as 
appears by the ftrange and frequent 
Ambiguities of the Oracles and Sybils. 
And thofe were counted the raoft 
profound Philofophersamongft them, 
who were beft able for the Invention 
of fuch affe&ed Obfcurities. 

Of this kind alio were all thofe 
myfterious Fables, under which the Mkt. 


1 6 The Secret and Swift 

Ancients did veil the fecrets of their 
R a^nn and Philofopby, counting it a 
prophane thing to proftitute the hid* 
ck;i n-.arrcrs of either , unto vulgar 
ppuehenfion. Quia [riant inimum 
*ffe nature aptrtam nudamque expofit^ 
.ttm fui ; qua, pent vulgar ibus honlu 
;?mn fe fifths, inttlkttumfui, vario re- 
'/-.<! ;n tegmine operimentoqite fubtraxit , 
it a a prudentibus arcana, fun voluit per 
i: sown. fry.'Jrfi tract art, faith Macrobim. The 
snp.Lit.i. g ,j s an( j nature would not them- 
Cap ' 2 ' fclves have hidden fb many things 
from us, if they had intended them 
for common underftandings, or that 
others mould treat of them, after an 
eafie and perfpicuous way : Hence 
was it that the learned men of former 
times were fo generally inclined, to 
involve all their Learning, inoblcure 
and myfterious Fxpreflions. Thus 
did the t :.'■■■ r>!,ic.n Priefts, the Pythago- 
rean •-, i . r .-. cL s, and almoft all other 
Sects and Profeffions. 
Partiu And to this general Cuftom of 
tliOi'c A 325 (we may guefs) the Holy 


Messenger. ty 

Ghpft does alludej in the frequent 
Parables both of the Old and New 
Teftament. Parabola eft fermo ftmilifu- c<m>wen.i» 
cltnariHS) qui aliud elicit, aliud Rgnifcatj ■' a^, ' 4 ' 
faith Aquinas. It is fuch a Speech of 
Similitude, as lays one thing and 
means another. The Difciples do 
dire£tly oppole it to plain (peaking, 
Behold now [peak? ft thou plainly , and no J ™ 1 1 ^ 
Parables. a * 

And elfewhere 'tis intimated, that 
our Saviour did ufe that manner of 
teaching for the Secrecy of it : That 
thole proud and perverle Auditors* 
who would not apply themfelves to 
the Obedience of his Doctrine, might 
not lb much as understand it. To 
whom it is not given* to know the my fie- Mar. ij. 
ries of the kingdom of Cod, to them all 12' V' ' 
tlmgs are done in P arables 9 that fee- x1jl 2.' 
ittg they may fee and not pertpive, and 
hearing they may hear and not under- 

The Art of thefe,was fo to imply a GUf.paiK 
ftcree Argument, that the Adverlary jyig\J' t *' 
might unawares be brought over to stit. $. 

C an 

i S The Secret and Swift 

an acknowledgment and confeflion 
of the thing *ve would have. Thus 
did Nathan unexpectedly uifcover to 
2Sim.1i. David, the Cruelty and Injuftice of 
his proceedings in the cafe of Vr-Uh. 
Thus did^another Pj ophet make Ahab 
condemn himfelf, for differing the 
King of Syr; a to efca pe. A nd by this 
means did cur Saviour, in the Parable 
of the Vineyard, arid the unjuft Hufc 
band-man, force the unbelieving Jews 
to a fecret acknowledgment of thole 
Judgments they had themfelves de- 

Of this nature was that Argument 
of an ancient Orator* who when the 
Enemies had propofed Peace, upon 
this cciVition, tha*t the City fhould 
banifli their Teachers and Philofo- 
phers, hefteps uprnd tells the Pea- 
pie a Tale, of eertain Wars betwi» 
the Wolves and the Sheep, and that 
the Wolves promifed to maklii a 
League, if the Sheep would put away 
their Maftiff-Dogs. By this means 
better intruding them *f the dan- 

Messenger. i« 

ger and madnefs there would be, in 
yielding to fuch a Condition. 

Che Jewifh Do&ors do generally 
in their T-dmud, and all their other 
Writings, accuftom themfelves to a 
Parabolical way of Teaching; and 
*tis observed, that many of thofe hor- 
rid Fables that are fathered upon 
them, do arife from a mifapprehen- 
fion of them in this particular. Whilft 'schuka-d 
ottfers interpret that according to the £**»*«« 
Letter, which they intended only for ^ m ,f' 

i » m i . I i-i -rf . . Rabbin 

the Moral. As that which one Rabby dif. 7. 
relates, concerning a Lyon in theFor- 
reftof £Aj, that at the diftance.of 
four hundred Leagues, did with his 
roaring {hake down the Walls of 
Rome, and make the Women Abor- 
tive. Wherein he did not affirm the 
exiftence of any fuch Monfter, but 
only intimate the terriblenefs and 
power of the Divine Majefty. But 
this 1 by the way. 

By this Art many men are able 

rn their ordinary ©ifceurles, fo le- 

creriy to cdnvey their Ceunfels, or 

C 2 re* 


The Secret and Swift 

reproofs, that none fhall underftand 
them-, btft tfiofe whom they con- 
cern. And this way of teaching hath 
a great advantage above any other, 
by reafon it hath much more powtlr 
in exciting the Fancy and Affeftions. 
Plain Arguments and Moral Precepts 
barely propoled, are more flat in their 
Operation, not fb lively and perfwa- 
five, as when they fteal into a man's 
affent, under the covert of a Parable. 

*To be expert in this particular, is 
not in every man's power ; like Poe- 
try, it requires fuch a natural Faculty 
as cannot be taught. But fo far as it 
falls under the rules and direction* 
of Art, .it belongs to the Precepts of 

In the general 'tis toJbe obferved* 
That in thele cafes a man muft be 
very careful to make choice of fuch a 
fubje&, as may bear in it fome proper 
Analogy and refemblance to the chief 
bufinefs. And he muft before-hand 
in his thoughts, fb aptly contrive the 
feveral parts of the Similitude, that 


Messenger. 21 

they may fitly anfwer unto thofe par- 
ticular paflages which are of greateft 


Concerning that Secrecy of Speech, which 
confifts in the words. Either 

By inventing new ones, VCanting. 
as in I Conjuring. 

Or by a changing: Inverfwn. 
of the know nSTranfmutation. 
Language,w tie S Diminution. 
ther ^Augmentation. 

THe fecret ways of Sp v eaking, 
which confifts in the matter of 
DSfcourfe-, have been already handled. 
Thole that are in the words are two- 
fold. Either 

1. By inventing new words of our 
own, which fliall fignifit upon com- 

2. Or -by fuch an alteration of any 
fenbwn Langaage, that inpronuncia- 

C 1 tion 

2i 7 he Secret and Swift 

tiori it ftia! \ teem as obfcure, as if it 
were .altogether barbarous. t 

To the firft kind we. .may rofer, 
the CW^ cf ikg^ars ; who though 
they retain the coramrn Particles, 
yet have imposed new names upon 
all fuch matters as mi'y happen to 
be of greatest Confluence and Se- 

And of this nature the Charmsof 
Witches, and Language of Magicians 
feem to be. , Though of thefe it may 
well be doubted, whether they have 
any fignificarion ac all. And it they 
have, whether am underftand them 
but the De^l himfelf. Tis pro- 
bable he did invent fucjh horrid and 
barbarous (bunds , that by them he 
might more eaiily delude* the weak 
^paginations of his credulous Dilci- j5les. Martwus de Aria, an Ai*fih- 
tffa"' ' ^ con i° Navar, fpeakingt)t a Cofi- 
juring-book, that was found in. a 
Parifh under his Vifitatfon, repeats 
out of it thefe forms of difcourfing 
with the Devil. Cepjuro te pir aim, 


Messenger. 12 

per. <elion t per Jkbow, per adorny, per 
/ttfelujih) per tmti, per archabnlon^ &c. 
And a little after, Situ alhgati dr • con- 
jlriftiperjftafajtftn nomina Dei, Hir t 
aHj, habet s faf, mi 9 fihjgty adrotia- 
gqpdt, tat, cbamiter<tm t &"c. And in 
another "place, Qorifiion, Matatron, 
Caladitf(w t Ozj;oz,0)To(iel, &.C. 

In which forms the common Par- 
ticles and afords of ufual Sence, are 
plainly fet down in ordinary Latin ; 
but many of the »pth?r, which (eem 
to have the greateft Efficacy, are of 
fuch fjecret fence, as I think no Lin- 
guiftcan difcover. 

The Inventions of this.kind do not 
fall under any particular Rule or 
Maxim, but may be equally infinite 
to. the variety of articulate Sounds. 

X^e- fecond.way of fecrecy itij> rt»de 
Speech, is by an alteration of any fun.nt.u. 
known Language, which, is &r:more $#£# 
eafie r and may prove of as much life cryptogr*. 
for the privacy of it, as the other. t^, lih ^- 
This may be performed four ways. eaf ' l ' 

C 4 1. By 


The Secret and'Swift 

i. By Inverfwft, when either the 
Letters or Sylidks are fpelled back- 

Mitto tibi M El V L AS cancros e Ugendo, where the word S A- 
L'VT EM is exprefTed by an inver- 
fion of the Letters. Or as in this other 
example, Stifbo tftad. vcc.i biti, which 
by an inverfion of the Syllables , is 
Hoftjs jideft, ca.vt tibi. 

2. By lEranfmuiation, or a mutual 
changing of one letter for another in 
pronunciation , anlWerable to that 
form of writing mentioned in the 
feventh Chapter. And though this 
may feem of great difficulty, yet ufe 
and experience will make it eafie. 

$. By contracting fbme words, and 
leaving part of them out; pronoun- 
cing them after fome fuch way as 
they were wont to be both written 
and printed in ancient Copies. Thus 
a~a ftands for anima, Arl r s for Jriftpte- 
ks. But this can be but of fmall ufe in 
the Englifh Tongue,becaufc that does 
confilt moftof Monofylkblts. 

4- By 

Messenger. ic 

J.. By ' Augmenting words with the 
addition of other letters. Of which 
kind is that fecret way of diicourfing 
in ordinary life, by doubling the 
Vowels that make the Syllables, and 
interpofing G.or any other Confbnarit 
/C- P.T.R, &c. or other Syllables, as 
Porta lib. i. cap. 5. de furtiv. liter. not is. 
Thus if I would fay, Our Plot is difco- 
vend, it muft be pronounced thus, 
Ougour plogot igis di^ifcogovegereged. 
Which does not feem fo obfctire in 
writing, as it will in fpeech and pro- 
nunciation. And it is fo eafie to be 
learnt , that I have known little 
Children^almoftas fodh as they could 
fpeak, difeourfe to one another as faft 
this way, as they could in their plain- 
eft Englifli. 

But all thefe latter kinds of fecrecy 
in Speech, have this grand inconve- 
nience in them , that they are not 
without fufpicion. 

There are fome other ways of 
fpeaking by inarticulate founds , 
which I fli&ll mention afterwards. Chap. r 7 . 

CHAP.' 8 ' 

2 6 The Secret and Swift 


Conarn'.ng the Secret Conveyances tf 
ant written Meffage in ufe amongfk 
tin Ancient s, 


Either by <IVater. 

(.the open Air. 

' | ^e fecrecy of any written Me£ 
JL (ag c may confift c Conveyance. 
eitH r in toe \ Writing. 

i In the Cor.vcy.iKci, when a Let- 
ter is lo.clofely conceajed in jhe caj- 
riage of it, as to delude trie fearcib 
and fiifpicion of the Adverfery. Of 
which kind uv: ancient Hiiiorians do 
furnjth us wish uivcrs relations, re- 
ducible in the general unto thefe three 
Heads. Thofe that arc 

j. By Land. 

2. By Water. 

?. Through the open Air. 

i. The 

Messenger. %y 

i. The fecret Conveyancesby Land, i ByLand 
may be of nijmberlels variety ; but 
thofe ancient Inventions of this na- 
ture, which to my remembrance are 
mod obvious and remarkable, are 

That of Harpngus the Mede (men- Mmd. 1. 1. 
tionedby Hiradopus and Juftiu) who ^^^ 2 /" r 
when he would exhort Cyrus to a Con- 
fpiracy againfl: the King his Uncle , 
(and not daring to r commit any 
fueh Meflage to the ordinary way of 
Conveyance , sfpecially fince the 
King's Jealouue had flopped up all 
paffages with Spies and Watchmen") 
he puts his Letters into the Belly of 
a Hire, which, togftther with certain 
Hunters Nets , he delivered unto a 
trufty Servant*, who under this dif- 
guife of a, Huntfman, got an unfii- 
fpe£ted paflage to Cyrus. And Aftyages 
jjimfelf was \x£ 1t this Comfpiracy be 
roaved of that Kingdom which was 
then the greatcU [monarchy in the 


2 8 T7;<? Secret and Swift 

7«fti».i.2. To this purpofe Jikewife is that 
Hkerelt- of Dtmaratus King of Sparta, who 
ted of Ha. being banifhed from his own Coun- 
7Buc*r.ik tT y^ anc j rece iv ec | in the Perfian 

Court, when he there underftood of 

Xerxes -his defign and preparation 

for a War with Greece, he ufed 

thefe means for the difcovery of it 

unto his Country-men. Having writ 

'Such as fl n EpilHe in a * Tablet of Wood, 

formerly be covered over the Letters with 

wwT" 6 Wax » an d l ' ien committed it unto 

wri.-e a trufty .Servant, to be delivered unto 

w5i°o' Cl ' VJ Ma S^ ratts or " Laced&nton ', who, 
the v lira fe wn en they had received it, Were 
k4> uj, u . for a long time in a perplexed Con- 

did fee nothing written, and yec 
could not conceive but that it fhou'd 
import fonie weighty Secret ; till 
at length the King's Sifter did ac- 
cidentally dftcover the Writing un- 
der, the Wax : By which means the 
Grecians were fb well provided for 
the following War, as to give a 
Defeat to the greateft and moft nu- 

Messenger. 20 

merous Army that is mentioned in 

The Fathers of the Council of if** of*. 
Ephefus , when Neftorius was con- #%* *„_ 
damned, being ftrictly debarred from u»r.c 31. 
all ordinary ways of Conveyances, 
were fain to fend unto Conftantinopk 
by one in the difguife of a Beggar. 

Some MefTengers have been fent 
away in Coffins as being Dead : Some 
others in the Difguife' of Brute Crea- 
tures, as thofe whom Jdfephm menti- 
ons in the Siege f o£ JotapAttjvho crept De s ^» 
out of the City by night irKe Dogs. J^* w/ J- 

Others have conveyed Letters to 
their imprifoned Friends, by putting 
them into the Food they were to re- 
ceive, which is related of Polycrita, 
Laurentius Medices involving his Epi- Herman. 
ftles in a piece of Bread, did fend J** * 
them by a certain Nobleman in the *"*'.*" " 
form of a Beggar. Thera is another solemn, de 
relation of one, who rolled up his ctypogr*- 
Letters in a Wax-candle, bidding the {*£''• *" 
Meflenger tell the Party that was to 
receive k,that the Candle would give 


3 o 7be Secrtft and Swift 

him light f$ his bufinefs. There is 
\ er a ft ranger Conveyance i^oken of 
po'.:"rat. m/Entas, by writing on leaves," and 
c - 3 1 - afterwards uitlj thefe leaves, cover- 
ing over fomc lore or putrid UldSfJ 5 
where the enemy would never fufpect 
any.fecret "VkfTage. 

Others ' ave carried Epiftles in- 
fcribed upoa their ownFftfb, which 
is.reckoned amongft thofe lecret Con- 
veyance's mentioned by 'Ovid. 

De Arte Caveat hoc cuflos, pro ch trta, co??fciA 

Amanct. ttTgUW 

PrAeat, tnque f.-.o corpore vfrfo 


Biit amongft all the ancient Pra« 
piles ih this kind, there is none, fbr 
t^Strangcnefs,, to be compared unto 

Ui>-, /..j. thai- of htyJFtius, mentioned by Hero- 

NoiL 4>ti **"*> anc ^ dUt Gt nim m Aulus Ge00f) 
1. 17. a4. who whilft he refided with DJtih 
in Perjia, being defirous to fend unto 
Arijfjgofat'm Greece f about revolting 
from the Persian Government, (con- 

Messenger. 31 

cerning which they had before con- 
ferred together ) but not knowing 
well how at that diftance to convey fo 
dangerous a bufinefs with fufficient 
Secrecy,he at length contrived it after 
this manner : He\chofe one of his 
HouQiold -Servants that was Troubled 
with fore Eyes, pretending that for 
his recovery his Hair muft be fbavetj, 
and his Head fcarrified ; in the per- 
formance of which HyftUus took oc- 
cafion to imprint his fecret Intentions 
on his Servant's Head ; and keeping 
him clofe at hofne till his Hair was 
grown, he then told him, That for 
his perfect Recovery, he muft Travel 
into Greece unto Ariflagoras, who by 
fhaving his Hair the fecond time, 
would certainly reftoit him. By 
which relation you may fee what 
ftrange Shifts the Ancients were put 
unto, for want of Skill in this Subject 
that is here difcourfed of. 

'Tis reported of fbme fugitive Jews j feph. de 
at the Siege of ftm/alem, who more heUo ? ud <*' 
fecurely to carry away their Gold*/ 6 '* iy * 


j 2 The Secret and Su>ift 

did firft melt it into Bullets* and then 
fwallow it down , venting it after- 
wards amongft their other Excre- 
ments. Now if a man had but his 
sdin. Poly- Faculty , who could write Homerh 
hift. c. 6. j liads in f (^ a ji a Volume as might 

be contained in a Nut-ihell, it were 
an eafie matter for him, by this trick 
of the Jews , fecurely to convey a 
whole Packet of Letters. 
j.ByWa- 2. When all the Land-paiTages have 
* r been (topped up, then have the An- 

cients ufed other fecret Conveyances 
by Water; writing their Intentions 
on thin plates of Lead, and faftning 
them to the Arms or Thighs of fbrne 
oestratag. expert Swimmer. * Vrontinus relates, 
;jf,3 that when Lncullus would inform 
a befieged City of his coming to 
fuccour them, he put his Letters 
into two Bladders, betwixt which 
a common Souldier in the difguile 
of a Sea-monfter, was appointed to 
fwim into the City. There have been 
likewife more exquifite Inventions 
to pafs under the Water, either by 

Messenger. 55 

a mans lelf, or in a Boat* wherein 
he might alfb carry provifion, only 
having a long Trunk or Pipe, with 
a tunnel at the top of it, to let down 
frefh air. But for the prevention of 
all fuch conveyances, the Ancients 
were wont in their ftri&eft Sieges, to 
crofs the Rivers with ftrong * Nets, * p/, " ,il0, 
to faflen flakes in (everal parts of the e ' 37 ' 
Channel with fharp Irons,as the blades 
ofSwords, flicking upon them. 

j .Hence was it that there have been J- through 
other means attempted through the Ak. 0pe " 
open Air, either by ufing Birds, as 
Pigeons and Swallows inftead of 
Meflengers , of which I (hall treat 
more particularly in the flxteenth 
Chapter. Or elfe by faftning a wri- 
ting to an Arrow, or the weight that 
is caft from a fling. 

Somewhat of this, nature, was that 
intimation agreed upon betwixtDavid » 
and Jonathan, though that invention 
does fbmewhat favour of the ancient 
fimpficitsy and rudenefs. It was a more vrmhfivt 
exaft invention mentioned by Htro- 1 * •<•***• 
D dotm 

34 The Secret and Swift 

dot us concerning Artobaxm and 7V- 
moxenusy who when d*y could not 
come together, were wont to inform 
cftie another of any thing -that con- 
cerned their affairs,by faftning a letter 
unto an Arrow, and directing it unto 
fome appointed place, where it might 
be received. 
PofyMw, Thusalfo Cleonymus King of L*«. 
'■*■ ' ^wo»,inthefiegeoftheCity7Ve«e»e, 
&e /'/** injoyned the Soldiers to fhoot feveral 
S»«f W Arrows into the Town, with notes 
faftned unto them having this In- 
fcription, "H»» r rroAiy i?Aj*hpmai» 
I come that I may refiore this plasm&o 
its Liberty. Upon which the mn- 
dulous and difcontented Inhabitants 
were very willing to let him enter. 

When Cicero was fo ftraightiy be« 
fieged by the Gouts, that the Soldiers 
were almoft ready to yield ; Cefar 
being defirous to encourage him with 
the news of fbme other Forces that 
were to come unto his aid, did fhoot 
an Arrow into the City, with thefe 
words faftned unto it> C^jftr Cicerom 


Messenger. 35 

filucUtn opt at y expe&4 jitxiliam. By 
which means the Soldiers were* per- 
faaded to hold out fo long) till shefe 
new Succours did arrive and break 
up the Siege. 

The fame thing might alfo be dene 
more fecurely, by rolling up a note 
within the head of an Arrow , and 
then fhooting of it to a Confederates 
Tent,or to any other appointed place. 

To this purpofe is that which Lyp- Poiimet. 
fas relates out of Jpptan, concerning ^ J£ # 2 
an ancient cuftom for the befieged 10 mention- 
write their minds briefly in a little ^^°' by 
piece of lead, which they could with a mp.Mttii. 
fling caft a great diftance, and exactly 1 9- 
hit any fuch particular place as fhouid 
be agreed upon, wherti the confede- 
rate might receive it, and by the feme 
means return an anfwer. 

Of thisfnature likewife, are thpfe 
kind of BuiletSjlately invented injfiefe 
German Wars, in which they can 
(boot, not only Letters, Corn,and the 
like^ut (whieh is the ftrangeft) Pow- 
der alfo into a befieged City. 

D 2 But 

$6 T&e Secret and Swift 

World in But amongft all other potfibie con- 
^^"'veyances through the Air, iraagina- 
4 tion it felf cannot conceive any one 
more ufeful, than the invention of a 
flying Chariot, which I have menti- 
oned clfewhere. Since by this means a 
Man may have as free a paffage as a 
Bird, which is not hundred either by 
the bigheft Walls , or the deepeft 
Rivers and Trenches , or the moft 
watchful Sentinels.But of this perhaps 
I may have occafion to treat more 
largely in fome other difcourfe. 


Messenger. 37 


Of that fkrecy which confifts in the 
materials of writing , whether the 
Paper or Ink. 

THE feveral Inventions of the 
Ancients, for the private con- 
veyance of any written meffage, were 
the fubject of the laft Chapter. 
The fecrecy of Writing may confift, 

cThe Materials, 
either in^ or 

vThe Form. 

1. The Materials of writing z.tq tseiemu fk 
the Paper and Ink, (or tfcat which is fg^"- 
inftead of them ) both which may " ' c ' l "* 
be fb privately ordered, that thfe in- 
fcribed fence fliall not be difcover- 
ab!e without certain helps and di- 

D 1 1. The 

n g The Secret and Swift 

i.rtepa- i . The chief contrivance of fecrecy 
f"- by the Paper, in ufe amongrr the 
Ancients, was the Lacedemomah Scy- 
tale, the manner of which was thus, 
There were provided two round ftaves 
of an equal length and fize, the Magi- 
ftrates always retaining one of them 
at home, and the other being carried 
abroad by the General, at hjs going 
forth to War. When there was any 
fecret bufinefs to be writ by it, theft 
manner was to wrap a narrow thong 
of Parchment about one of thefe 
Staves, by a ferpentine revolution, 
fo that the edges of it might meet 
clofe together ; upon both " which 
edges they infcribed their Epiftle, 
whereas the Parchment being taken 
qtF, there appeared nothing but pieces 
of letters on the fides of it , which 
could not be joyned together into the 
right fence, without the true Scytale. 
Thus is it briefly and M\f deleribed 
by Jitfonius. 




Vel Lxcedemomam Scytalen imitare Avfowwai 

libelli, Pmlimm. 

Stgmina Pergamei, tereti t circumdata 

Perfetuo infer ib^ns verfit t deindefy- 

Non refpondentes fparfo dab it or dim 

You may read in Plutarch, how by 
this means Phamabaz. did deceive In v 
Lyfmder. itfmkH 

'Tistruejindeedjthat this way was 
not of fuch inextricable fecrecy, but 
that a little examination might have 
eafily difcovered it, (as Scaliger truly Exm.^, 
obferves) however in thofe Ages , 
which were lels verfed in thefe kinds 
«f Experiments, it feemed much 
more fecret than now it does unto us ; 
and in thefe times there are fuch 
other means of private difcourfing, 
which even Scdigefs Eyes (as good as 
they were) could not difcover. And 
therefore it was too inconfiderate and 
D 4. nnaei- 

4q The Secret and Swift 

magifterial a fgntence of him, from 

voffiusde thence to conclude all this kind of 

f'T™ learning to be vain and ufelefs,ferving 

only for impofture, and to perplex 

the' inquirer. 

'Tis certain that fome occasions 

may require the exadeft privacy j and 

tis as certain, that there may be fbme 

ways of fecrecy , which it were mad- 

nefs for a man to think he could un- 

vtget. de re fold. Furor i flmtk ejfe videtur, jibi aii- 

m ¥. /• 3- quern perfuadere, tam circumfpe&um , hc- 

minem ejje poffe, ut ft a furttvo quodant 

fcripto^abdttaq\ macbinatione tueri poffit: 

nam ajlans quiljbtt, vel promi d*jLns 

loquitur , & faftum nunciat, ut nonfainm 

A nemine ptrcipiatuf, ftd ne fih qutdent 

femficare quippiam poffe exiftemet, faith 

Vegepius. And Bapt/fia Porta (who 

Proam.ii.had a ftrange and incredible ability in 

££*"* ^ coverin g °f f Q° ret writings , yet 
dogh ing,enidufly confefs, Mudta ejje 
pvffe furtiva fcripta, qua fe interact. i- 
turum qmnquAm po/tieeri, fmeorem ac 
delirium plane.exijiimarem. 


Messenger. 41 

So that chough the ancient inven- 
tions ef this kind, were too eafily dii- 
coverable,yet Scatiger had no reafbrrto 
conclude this to be a needlefs Art, or 
that therefore -he could unfold any 
other way that might be invented. 
But this by the way, 

2. The other material of writing is a.Thelnk. 
the lnk,or that liquor which is ufedin- 
ftead of it, by which means alfo, there 
arefundry waJC6of fecrecy^commonly p™* m*. 
mentioned in natural M^ick. mlh?& 

Thus if a man write with falf Am secret.i.14. 
mowacl:, difTblved in water, the letters Joach - For - 
will not appear legible, till the paper ^f^*" 
be Jwld by the fire : This others affirm 
to be true alfo in the juyce of Onions, cardan. 
Lemons, with diveife the like acid and *^j e lli 
corroding moiftures. rietate^ii 

And on the contrary, thole letters c - 6u 
that are written with diflblveojAllum, 
will not be difcernable till the paper ibid. 
be dipped in water. 

Tfiere are fbme other Jukes that BibUmder 
do not appear, till the paper be held f^'"^ 
betwixt a Candle and the Eye. TZ. "*"*" 


42 The Secret and SmJft 

That which is written with the 

water of putrified Willow, or the 

diftilled Juice of Glow-worms, will 

not be vifible but in the dark, as Port* 

Defurtiv. a gj rrl!s f rom hj s wn experience. 

There is alio a iecret way 01 wri- 
ting with two feveral Inkr, both of 
them alike in colour, but the one 
being of that nature, that it will eafily 
be rubbed or wafhed off, and the other 

A man may likewife' write fecretfjr 
witha raw Egg, the letters of which 
being throughly dried, let the whole 
paper be blacked over with Ink, that 
it may appear without any infer ption, 
and when this Ink is alio well dried, 
if you do afterwards gently (crape k 
over with a Knife," it will fall off from 
thofe places, where before the words 
were written. 

Thofe letters that were defqribed 
with Milk,or Urin,or Fat,o^ any other 
glutinous moifture,will not be legible 
unlefs duft be firft fcattered upon 
them , whichr by adhering to thofe 


Messenger: 45 

pl^ces,will difcover the writing. This 

way is mentioned by Ovid y r»« Art, 


Tut a quoque eft , fallitqite octtlos e 
Utlt recenti 
Liter a , carbonis fufaere tange , 

And 'tis thought that Attains made 
ufe of this device , the better to ex- 
cite the courage of his Soldiers. Being 
before the Battel to facrifice to the 
gods for fiiccefs, as he pulled out the 
intrails of the Beaft , he defcribed 
upon them thefe words,^^ Fithrea, 
which he had before written back- 
ward in his hand with fome gummy 
juice. The intrails being turned up 
and down by the Prieft, to find out 
their fignification, the letters did by 
that means gather lb much duft as to 
appea*r legible. By which omen the 
Soldif rsrwere lb ftrangely hejghtned 
in rheir hopes and valour, that they 
woo the day. 


44 The Secret and Swift 

Unto thefe Experiments of fecrqcy 
ouji. sele- in the Materials of writing , fbme 
J'^S'add thofe other way? of exprefling 
A 8. c. 3.' any private intimation by drawing a 
firing through the holes of a little 
Tablet or Board ; thele holes (hould 
be of the lame number with the let- 
ters , unto which by compact the^y 
fhould be feverally applied. The 
order of the threads palling through 
therai,may ferve to exprefs any words, 
and fb confequently any fence we 
would difcover. 

To this purpofe likewife is that 
other way oPfecret information, by 
divers knots tied upon a firing, ac- 
cording to certain diftances, by which 
a man may asdiftin&ly, and yet as 
S-ctetly, exprefs his meaning,* as by 
any other way of dilcourfe. For who 
would miftr.uft any private News or 
Treachery to lye hid in a thread , 
wherein there was nothing to be 
difterned, but f'undry confufed knots, 
or other the I ike marks ? 



The manner of performing it is 
tbus : Let there be a fquare piece of 
plate, or Tablet of Wood like a 
Trencher, with the twenty four Let- 
ters defcribed on the top of it, at 
equal diftances, and after any order 
that may be agreed upon before-hand, 
on both the oppofite fides, let there 
be diverfe little teeth, on which the 
firing may be hitched or faftned for 
its feveral returns, as in the follow- 
ing figure. 




The Secret and S&ft 

Ia£ c d\e\fW\h iffclmnoj 

»<Z r 5|t uwxmfkl 

< , |.| i M 1 

< • n i 1 1 

£*. -Z? 

<L ULL 1 _,_ — 

- + -5 

^.j^jtriLJ ^ 

-r- *- ^ 

<" '• j H ■ L fc ' 

| • -| lJ -^ 

^ ■..'.' & 1 .. -. .... _| ._ 

<^J ^ 1 1 ^ ... 

• ' "^ 

< i 1 ■ !_L_ . _]_ 

-3- * -5 

< 1 ' ! ' , , .„\ 


5-^.— i- 1 J t- 

. *± 3 

<^._ i . . M 1 l f 

-+-Z -^> 

5- ' -h ' ' -U4- 

• * — ^ 

<^__J ] I i ; ! ! * 1 

' • *> 

< >- J M ^ ' 


<Ci_ n i 1 i 

-u— 1^ 

^> - i- — ^ — i • ' '. 

- - II? 

S-r-M+4- -4-4—-*- 

- -». — _ _ ^. — - 

<_r ■ x ^^ 

i — — — ^- — — . __n—<< 

<X __X_J_ I ... 

1 J_ s 

$fjhere the ftring is fuppofed to 
be faftned by a loop on the firft tooth, 
towards the letter A, and afterwards 
to be drawn fucceffively over all the 
reft. The marks upon it do exprefs 
the fecret meaning. Beware <f thk 


Messenger. 47 

Bearer who is ftnt as a Spy over you. 
When it is taken off, and lent to a 
Confederate, he may eafily under- 
hand its intention, by applying it to 
his own Tablet, which muft be an- 
fwerable unto this. The inftrument 
may be made much longer than is 
here expreffed ; but if the matter to 
be revealed fhculd happen to be more 
than the Tablet would bear then may 
it be fapplied either by another ftring, 
orelfefey beginning again with that 
part of the fame ftring, wherein the 
laft letter was terminated. 

There may be divers other inven- 
tions of this kind, but I have notob- 
ferved any more remarkable, than 
thofe which are already mentioned. 


48 7he Secret and Swift 


Secret writing wkh the common letter s i 
by chmging of their f laces. 

Selentts de 

THat fecrecy which does confift 
in the form of writing, is 
cwtogrl- when the words or letters are fe 
fhia, t. z. framed by compact , that they are 
V" „,- n °t of ordinary fignification. The 
.;/- inventions of this kind may, both 

rum 0:: 

twit inter f or t h t \ v pleafure and benefit, juftly 
tempt challenge a place amongil our other 

ftantesan- ftudieS. 

TcTdln. St - 4»fi in r peaWng of fuch human ! inventions as are to be embraced or 
avoided, and reje&ing all magical In- 
stitutions and Commerce with the 
De Dotirin Devil, he adjoyns, Ea vero qu* ho- 

ChrijVm.j, 1111 , rr 1 1 

f.i. c t.6. wt'^scum homtntbtts hAbent, ajjumendd, 
& maxims liter Arum fgur* , &C. 
Ex eo gnere funt ctiam not it , quas 
cj li didicerunt , proprie notarii appel* 
l.mtur. Vtilia funt .ifla > nee difcuntur 
till cite 1 mc fnperftitirfe impl/cant t nee 



luxu enervant, (i taptHm dbctipent, ut 
mapribus /ehes, ejaibus inftrvfre dt- 
bwt^ not fini imfedhnento. 

This way of kcrct writing maybe 
contrived, either 

i. By the common letters. 
2. Or by forne invented notes 
and chara&ers inftaad of them. 

Both thefe being diftingui£hable 
into thole kinds that contain either, 

i. Equal. 

2. Qrmore. 

5. Or fewer figns than are na- 
turally requited to the true framing 
of the word. 

The particulars of thefe may be 
altered to futh great variety as can- 
not be reckoned, and therefore I fhall 
fpetifie thole only which feem mod 
remarkable , ekher for their Anti- 
quity or life fa In? ft. 

The way of fecret writing by equal 
letters, is either b/ changing of 
i. Their places, or 
2. Their powers. 

E i. By 


<o The Secret and Swift 

i. By altering of the places ; 
^ Lines. 
Either of the } Letters. 
2 Both. 
i.Bytranf- i. A man may obfcure the ienft, 
pofmgthe |jy perplexing the order of the Lines. 
"" If they be written, not only from the 
left hand to the right, but alfo from 
the right hand to the left, as in the 
Eaftern Languages, or from the top 
to the bottom, and fo upward again? 
Dioitr.sic. as is commonly related to be ufual 
BMioth. amongft the Inhabitants of Taprobmw 
iiimm. m tne South-Sea, with thole in Chin* 
uygo de and Japau. According to this follow* 
ortg.scrib. j ng example. 





























































































Messenger. ^i 

In the reading of which , if you 
bean at the firft letter towards the 
right hand, and fo downwards, and 
then upwards again, you may find 
thefe words expreffed. 

The Pejlileme doth fiii increafe *■ 
WDHgft us, rvefhall not he able to hold out 
the Siege without frejb andfpeedy fuffly. 

2. A man may obfcure the lenle of *By trant 
his writing, by tranfpofing each Let- gjjjg ; the 
ter according to fome unufaal order. 
As fuppole the firft letter fbould be 
at the tatter end of the line. the fecond 
at the beginning, or the like. 

j. The meaniog of any written jBytranf- 
miffige may be concealed, by alter- J°^ he 
i»g the order both of the letters and K nes an <r 
the iines together. As if a man letters. 
fhosld write each letter in two leve- 
fal lines, thusy 

hfudesra lota i h dya py sr emsyid 

The Soulikrs are almofl fortified ; 
Supply us t orwemuft yield. 

E 9 Thrf 

e 2 TV Secret and Swift 

This way may be yet farther ob- 
*Oras fcured, by placing them in* four 
many lines, and after any difcontinuate or- 

Se k " h c * er * A s * u PP°k tnat tne ^ * etter bc 

oftheEp- in the beginning of the firftlin*, the 

ftie ihaii fecond in.the beginning of the fourth 

require - line, the third in the end of the firft, 

the fourth in the end of the fourth, the 

fifth in the beginning of the fecpnd 

line, the fixth in the beginning of the 

third, the feveiith in the end of the 

fecond, the eighth in the end of the 

third, and fo of the reft. As in this 


Wtnrp i tahhscteinpke 
h a t h fonoihkftoen il 

a no e r rocgr tthmnvrl 
e a u o mh te i nlene ttef 

Which in its refolution is this : 

We (hall mpkt an Irruption upofi tne 
Emmy, from the A or th,at ten of the clock 
this night. 

wj.uut This way will yet feem more ob 
M - 9- fcure, if each line be fevered into fucii 
words as may feem barbarous. 



All thefe kinds may be varied unto 
divers other more 'intricate Tranfpo- 
fitions, according as a mans fancy or 
occafion fhail lead him. 



tmcernittgfecntt writing with tqud let- 
ters, by changing th< : ir po *v ers. The 
uft of this among ji the Jews and Ro- 
mans. The Kjfy~char after. 

AS a writtea menage may be con- 
cealed by, changing' the places 
of the letters, fo likewife by changing 
of their Ponws, putting one of them 
for another, asfuppoie Lfbr A, and 
A for L or the like. Anfwerable to 
that-kind of Ca&difrn in the Jewifh shukard 
learning, which the Rabbies call^" 
SiTSi or Combimtio-i when the letters mp'a-uf. 
of the Alphabet are feverally tranf- D f- L ^ 
poled , and taken one for another , ^£o g . 
a/tef any known order. Of which i.*.p#-t r. 
there be as many kinds, as there may ^^ 
E 3 be 

ca 7he Secret and Swift 

be feveral combinations of the letters. 
But amdngft the reft, they obferve 
two of more frequent ufe. The firft 
is ftiled from the four firft correspon- 
dent letters tzo'w Albam ; in whkh 
they are thus oppofite to one another. 

The other is from the fame reafbn 
called eranK Atbhajb, wherein the let- 
ters are thus mutually oppofed, 

*?oJ Dp3srpi»n 

Both thefe kinds of fecret writing, 
the Jewifh Doctors think to be fre- 
quently ufed by the (acred Pen men 
of Holy Writ, amongft whom the 
Prophet Ifaiah and Jeremiah are ob- 
ferved to be of more efpecial note for 
their skill in Cabalifms. 

By the firft of thefe combinations 
called Aibam t that pfeee of ifaiah 7.4. 
is ufually interpreted, wher,e that is a 


Messenger. r* 

pfrfon mentioned under the unknown 
name of ^aa Tabeal, whom the Pro- 
phet affirms to afpire unto the Crown 
ofjudah, meaning by a fecrettranf- 
mutation of the letters n'lor Remdiah 
the King of fjrael, whom he was loath 
more exprefly to nominate. And 
therefore he veils it by this kind of 
f§crecy,inftead of i writing the letter 
ab»ve it cs ; for o the correfporuknt 
letter 3, and fb 1 ? for n , and tf for *7. 
Which being joyned together , do 
make tea, inftead of vhoi. 

By the ieeond of thefe combina- 
tions called Atbbujh , is that place 
Jerem. 51. 1. tran dated ; whereby 
the Drigina *qp I 1 ? Cor infttrgtntium 
tmtra me y is meant anws the Chal- 
deans ; and therefore both the Tar- 
gum and the Sttttugipt do unant»< 
moufly tranflate k fo, as if in (heir 
verfion of it, they had chiefly re- 
ipefted unto this kind of CabaJilm. *«■«. aj. 
So like wife in 41. verfe of the lame J;^** 
Chapter, by the fained name of-iuw «>».»» '*»«* 
is meant ^3Su **fcw». 

E 4 Ibis 

c £ The Secret and Swift 

XMtor.M This way of fecret writing, hath 
'^ been alfe in ufe amongft the ancient 
mi. Attic Romans: Thus Suetonius relaies of 
i.i7.c.9- Julius t.sftr, wheti he would convey 
any private bufinafc, he did ufually 
write it, p< r epuartam ekmentorunf lite- 
ram, that is D for A \ E for B, and fit 
of the reft. After this order, 

defghik liftnopq»rftvw*yz*pc 
abc^efgh i klmnopqr s tuwxyz 

Hiflen ifato me. 

Ldwxhq yqxr ph. 

And ttte fame* Author reports of 
0&Avins Aiigufttu, that in the writing 
of his iecrets, he did Secundum zk- 
mentum proprii locojubflituerefet down 
the fecond letter for the firft, as B for 
A, C for B, and for A a double x x. 

But now*, jjecaofe fuch an Epiftle 
might be eafily unfolded, beinjg alto- 
gether written by the fame' way; 
therefore this kind of fecrecy, hath 
by later invention, been further ob- 
fcured, by writing each feveral word 
or line,or letter, by a divers Alphabet. 


Mess enoer. 

For the performance of this, two 
Friends rnuft before-hand by oompac\ 
agree upon fbme certain form of 
words, that may be inftead of a key, 
ferving both to cfofe, and to unlock 
the writing ; which words would be 
lefs difeoverable, if they be barbar- 
ous and of no fjgnif/cation. 

But for the eafier apprehending of 
this, I fhall explain it in an example. 

Suppofe the key agreed upon,were 
only this one word Prttdentia. 

Having firft framed feveral Alpha- 
bets according to qach of its -letters ; 





The Secret and Swift 




ft vlwxy zslE 

uwx yza 


yza bccK efg 
DJ ej'g i'hj'k 1 m'norplqrs 
EJ fg |Iuk|rmn ! o p q rst 

a b c 

c d e 

N|op;q rs |tuw 
Tuw X y zjajbc 
I j k 1 mno|p qjr 



s t u w*xy 
k i mjn o p 

q rs 

" f BL 

I mn 








i o p 

qr s 






a be 
q r s 


I may write each line, or word, or 
letter, according as the order of thefe 
Alphabets fhall direft. As in thefe 

i. Intheliaes. 

Ixt hdkasytgh bkiyen 
xfi nrelfxmatlmrck; 
npkkfs pn, im oczs qdff 
uhyroxxr xlh hqmpmh. 

2. In 

Messen ger. 

s. In the words. 

Ixt kfracuawik gpodhs 
iru aery bs oiwnotern ; 
bdyytg vs, dg lzwp qcjff 
uhyrox ys gur ygcfioy. 

3. In the lettfcrs. 

Izz wshemitiryn pzgcwy 
vfm zean xf kaxxznebr 
skgkoc hm, xr izzb awet 
rtrn iox gh cht whtnqwy. 

Which examples being unfolded, 
do each of them exprefs this inward 

The Souldkrs mutiny 
for WMtt ofFi&HaUs ; 
Supply us, or they will 
Revolt to the enemy. 

Thefe ways may be yet further ob- 
jured, if the firft Alphabet, (accord- 


<So The Secret and Swift 

ing to which the reft are defcribed) 
be contrived after any mixed order. 
As (uppofe inftead of the ordinary 
A bc,<Jv. there be written thefe let- 
ters after this gianner. 

Rzkmpseblauftcy gwhxoqind. 

And then. will they be liable to all 
thole Other differences of fecrecy, that 
are ufually invented by the Wheel- 
cfarABtr, which you may fee largely 
defcribed by Porta. 

Therejnay be divers other ways 
to this purpofe, bfit by thefe ytw may 
fufficiently difcern the nature of the 


Messenger. 61 


Offecret tinting by more letters than 

are requifite to the intended mean- 

THe different kinds of fecrecy by 
equal letters have been already- 
handled. The next particular to' he 
difcufled, is concerning the ways of 
hiding any private fence under more 
letters than are required to the words 
of it. 

Of which kind there may be divers 
particulars, fbme of them in ule a- 
mongfl: the Ancients. 

j. A writing may be fb contri- 
ved, that only one letter in a verfe 
fhall be Significant. As it was msybni* 
thofe remafkable Acrojlicks made Er J*br*a. 
by a Sybill concerning our Saviour ; 
where the letters at the beginning of 
ea«ch verfe, being put together, made 
up thefe words, 'lw<ss £e*»s **** $@" 

62 7 be Secret and Swift 

owtw/j. Jejus Cbrift the Son of God d 

Saviour. The tranflation of thefe you may 
sybtllu. f ee in 5 t< Augu fo tt fa civit. Dei lib. 1 8. 

cAf.%i. And fche original are men- 
tioned by Ludovicus Vives, in his notes 
upon that place. 

According unto this doth PUtttus 
contrive the names of his Comedies 
in the firft letters of their Arguments. 
But this way is fo ordinary in pra- 
ftife, that it needs not any further 

2. The inward fence hathlikewife 
been conveyed by fome fingle letters 
of feveral words in the lame verle. 
As in that common Diftich. 

v*U. Mitto tibi caput Veneru y ventremqut 

Latronifque captft, pojieriora canE. 

?. Sometimes one letter in each 
word was only fignifieant. By which 
way of fecret expreflion , the Holy 
Ghofl: (fey the Rabbies) hath pur- 


Messenger. 6$ 

pofely involved many facred Myfte- 
ries in Scripture. When thefe fignifi- 
cant letters were at the beginning of 
each word,the Cabalifts,in their learn- 
ing, called fuch an implicit writing 
ron nftn Capita. diBionum* When 
they were at the latter end, then was 
it ftiled maT> W Fines dittionum. 
Both being reckoned as fpecies of 
that Cabalifm which they called 
ppnesw Notaricon, impofed by fomje 
later Rabbies from the Latin word 

Of the firft fort, is that colle&ion Theopj.- 
from thofe eminent words,Ge/?.4Q. 1 o tal ets ° 
I'rin^n tsQi Shilo (hull come, and in him t 
&c. where the capital letters make 
up the word ~vq\ Jeju. 

So Pfal. 7$. 17. vn:pan*iia& ?i^ 
His Name {hall continue, and in him 
(ball le*hkjfed y &;c which place 
does exprefly treat concerning the 
Meflias his name, and therefore 
feems unto the Jews , to be of 
ftrong confluence for the proof 
of Chriftianity. For fo much is 


($4 The Secret and Sn>ft 

that Nation befooled in their ab- 
furd dotage, upon thefe trivial li- 
teral collections, that a reafbn of 
this nature is of greater force unto 
them, than the moft evident, folid 
demonftration that may be urged. 
Lib.nfo- LudovknsC arret, a famous Jew,Phy- 
rum Divi- f ic i a n to the French King , being 
mrum. ^^f^f converted , and writing an 
Epiftle to this purpofe, unto thole of 
his own Nation, he does chiefly in- 
fill upon the Arguments of this kind, 
as being in his opinion of greateft 
efficacy to provethe truth of Chri- 
ftian Religion. 

Of the other fort is that paflage 
Tkfinat Q e?? ^ j , n ^^ nU?N ^ 3 w h ere the fi- 
nal letters make up the word nsv 
or Truth. Which kind ofCabalifm 
is fix times repeated in the Hi- 
ftory of the Creation. A#if Mo fit 
by fuch an artificial contrivance of 
the letters at the beginning of his 
writings, did purpolely commend 
unto our beUef his following Books. 
Unto this David is thought to 


Messenger. 6t 

allude Pfal. 119. r 60. The beginning 
of thy wordti DON Truth. Of this nature 
likewife is that obferyation from 
Exod. ?. 1 J. no lew no -h. When they 
{ball fay unto me, what is his name^ &C. 
Where the final letters anfwer 

Itwerean eafie matter for a man 
that had leafure and patience forfuch 
enquiries, to find out fundry Argu- 
ments of this kind for any purpofe. 

4. There is another way of hiding 
any fecret fence under an ordinary 
Epiftle, by having a * plate with cer- cardan de 
tain holes in it, through which (being f f ^ l e 7 ' 
laid upon the paper) a man may write fm.i. 2. 
thole letters or words, that ferve to ' " 

c. 18. 

exprefs the inward fence ; the other p^ nte a r s s 
fpaces being afterwards filled up with ufe when 
fuch other words, as in their conjun- [Jj^f^. 
Qion to thefe former, fhall contain verfe red 
fome common unfpe&ed bufinefs. -1«m« " 
.{. There is alfo another, intricate %£&. 
way to this purpofe, much infifted 
on by Tritemzus, Porta, and Sylemu. 
When each ufual word or form of 
F an 

66 The Secret and Swift 

anEpiftle, is varied to as many diffe- 
rences as there are letters, unto which 
they muft all of them be feverally 
afligned. But trfele two latter inven- 
tions (though they be of great fecrecy, 
yet) becaule they require fo much 
labour and trouble in the writer , I 
fhall therefore pafs them over with- 
out any further enlargement. 


Messenger. 67 


Of concealing any written fence under 
barbarous words, dndfuch at fh all not 

feem to be of any figmfication. How 
all the letters may be expreffed by any 
foe, three, or two of them. Of writing 
with a double Alphabet. How from 
thefe two la ft Wip togetyer , there 
may be contrived the bejl kind of 

fecret writing. 

ALL the ways of fecrecy by 
more letters , already fpecifiea, 
do make the writing appear under 
fome other fence , than what is in- 
tended, and fo conlequently are 
more free from fufpicion: There are 
tikewile fome ether inventions to ex- 
prefs any inward fence by barbarous 
words, wherein only the firft, and 
middle, and kft letters (hall be fignifi- 
canr. As in this Example, 

F 2 Fildj, 

£8 The Secret and Swift 

Fildy, fagodur wyndeeldrtre drfcogitrt 


Which in its refolution is no more 
than this. 

Fly for we are difcovered. 

To this purpole likewife is that 
other wa^ of exprefling the whole 
Alphabet, by any five, or three, or 
two of the letters repeated. And 
though fuch a writing, to ordinary 
appearance, will feem of no fignifi- 
cation at all , and fo may teem of 
lefs ufe : Yet becaufe a right appre- 
henfion oftheleways, may conduce 
to the explication of fome other par- 
ticulars that follow, it will not be 
amifs therefore to fet them down 
more diftin&ly. 

All the letters may be expreffed by 
any five of them doubled. Suppofe 

Messenger. <5p 

aa ab ac ad ae ba bb be bd be ca cb cc 

P aR S T V WX Y Z. & 
cd ce da db dc dd de ea eb ec ed. ee 

According to which, thefe words, 

1 am betrayed, may be thus defcribed. 

Bd aacb abaedddbaaecaead. 

Three letters being tranfpoled 
though three places, do give fufH- 
cient difference, whereby to exprels 
the whole Alphabet. 


aaa aab*aac baa bba bbb bbc caa cca 

klmno p q. r s 

ccbccc aba abb abc aca scb ace bca 
T V W X Y Z &. 
beb bec bab cba ebb cbc bac 

H.tjlen unto me. 

Caa aaa bca beb bba abb bec abb 
beb abc aba bba. 

F $ Tvva 

7o The Secret and Swift 

The whole Two letters of the Alphabet, being 
fxprdfed tranfpofed through five places, will 
by any two yield thirty two differences, and fo 
letters in wl \\ more than ferve for the four and 

vcp aces ' twenty letters ; unto which they maj^ 
be thus applied. 

A. B. C. D. E. aaaah. aaaba. aaabb. aabaa. 

F. G. H. L K>, 

aabab. aabba. a Mb. abaaa. aba tit, 

L. M. N. 0. P. 

ababa. abaab. abbaa. abbab. abbba. 

Q_ R. S. T. V. 

abbbb. baaaa. baaab. baaba. baabb, 

w. x. r. ^. 

babaa. babab. babba. babbb. 

aababababababba aaaaababaaaaaaababba. 
fly away 


Messenger. 71 

There is yet another way of fecrecy ^"^s 
by more letters than are naturally re- bkAipha^ 
quired to the inward fence , if we bet. 
write with a double Alphabet, where- 
in each letter fhall in the fafhion of it^ 
bear fome fiich fmall diftin&ion from 
the other of the fame kind, as is ufual 
in common mixed writing. 

For Example. 
The firft Alphdet. 

A a 

7 z The Secret and Swift 

Ja.BkCc.'Dck>'Ee.TJ.(;g.jt k 
fi .Kk. limm.Mn.Oo.'?]> ski, 

KxSJsfftVwWwXr .yy.'Zz. 

/Cn. 3B.Cc. 252$ .8 z.fff. <fg tftA 

Ji . TK. ^.HmXti Do !y>.&j. 

!. Write an Epiftle of an ordi- 
nary matter, or (if it be needful) 
contrary to what you intend. Let 
the body of it confift chiefly of the 
fir ft Alphabet, only interring (as you 
have occafion) fuch letters of the 


Me ssenger. yr 

fecond, as may.exprefs that inward 
meaning which you would reveal to 
a Confederate. 

For example, from thofe that 
are befieged. 

VvEtvrosvtr stilLin am ok 
jaives.tind mall^Mhowt 

navAnv any further neLpc^ 
ensure ike Pteqe. 

In which claufe, the letters of the 
(econd Alphabet are only fignificant, 
exprefling this inward fence. 


74 Tfo Secret and Smfi 


Butbccaufe the differences betwcp 

tbefe two Alphahets may feem more 

eafily dilcoverable, frnce they are 

both generally of the fame kind ; the 

letters of the fecoud being all of them 

more round and full than the other,: 

Therefore for their better fecjrecy'in 

this particular, it were fafer to mix 

them both by compaft, that they 

might not, in themielves, be diftin- 


The bed Now if this kind of writing, be 

way of m j xec ] w i t h t h e latter way of Secrecy, 

writing. D y two letters tranlpoled through 

Bacon. five places ; we may then write 

Augment omn i A p er on}n - a w hich (as a learned 

t . 8. man lpeaks) is the higheft degree of 

this Cyphering. 


Messenger. y^ 

For fuppofing each letter of the 
firft Alphabet to be inftead of the 
letter A t and thofe of the other for B t 
we may eafily infcribe any iecret fence 
in any ordinary letter, only by a 
quintuple proportion of the writing 
infolding, to the writing infolded. As 
for example .- 


y 6 Tl?e Secret and Swift 

Nlmxictg XctncwyoL ac 
s&anj& "men yee mzete. d 

me m>oim5 -time ara Wacc 

dwfimyou must not fa\k 

dy any <means Die •me]! dr 

owe (Snrs^o^w^z^ 

won the vieetvna that wee 
nave agw$ vpon. 


Messenger. yy 

The involved meaning of which 
claufe is this : 

Fly, for we are difcovered, I am forced 
to write this. 

If you fuppofe each letter of the 
firft Alphabet to be inftead of A, and 
thofe of the fecond for B, then will 
the former claufe be equivalent to this 
following defcription. 

Aabab ababa babba aabab abbab baaaa babaa 

Fly f o r w 

aabaa aabaa aaaaa baaaa aabaa aaabb 
e e a r e d 

abaaa baaab aaaba abbab baabb aabaa 
i f c o v e 

baaaa aabaa aaabb abaaa aaaaa ababb 
re d, I a m 


7 8 The Secret and Swift 

aabab abbab baaaa aaaba aabaa aaabb 

baaba abbab babaa baaaa abaaa baaba 
t o w r i t 

aabaa baaba aabbb abaaa baaab. 
e t h i s. 

This way of fecrecy may be fer- 
viceable for fuch occafions as theft. 
Suppofe a man were taken Captive, 
he may by this means difcover to 
his Friends the fecrets of the enemies 
Camp , under the outward form of 
a letter perfuading them to yield. 
Or fuppofe fuch a man were forced 
by his own hand-writing to betray 
his Caufe and Party , though the 
words of it in common appearance 
may exprefs what the enemy does 
deEre ; yet the involved meaning, 
( which fhall be legible only to his 
Confederates) may contain any 



thing elfe, which he has a mind to 
difcover to them .• As in the former 

But now if there be a threefold 
Alphabet, (as is eafie to contrive) 
then fhe inward writing will bear 
unto the outward but a triple pro- 
portion , which will be much more 
convenient for inlarging of the pri- 
vate intimations. 

And this way of writing is juftly 
to be preferred before any of the 
other, as containing in it more emi- 
nently 3 all thofe conditions that are 
defirable in liich kind of inventions. 

i. 'Tis not very laborious either 
to write or read. 

2. Tis very difficult to be decy- 
phered by the enemy. 

3. ^is void of fufpicion. 



80 7be Secret and Sitifi 

But by the way, 'tis to be gene- 
rally obferved , that the mixture of 
divers kinds of fecret writing toge* 
ther (as fuppofe this with the Key- 
character) will make the inward 
fence to be much more intricate and 


Messenger. 81 

C H A P. X. 

Of writing any ftcret fenfe by fewer 
letters than are required to the words 
bf it. The ufe of this amongfk the 
Jews and Romans. 

AS the fenfe may be obfcured by 
writing it with more letters than 
are required to the words of it, fo 
likewife by fewer. Abbreviations have 
been anciently ufed in all the learned 
Languages, efpecially 'in common 
forms, and Phrafes of frequent ufe. 
Sometimes by contracting words , 
when lome parts of them did ftand 
for the whole. So in the Hebrew 'toi Buxtotf.-de 
for to et totum Mud, which is all cne ^™^ 
with our et cetera, &c. na for ion? 
Secundum dictre, equivalent to our 'viz.. 
or v.g. verbi gratia. So like wife in the 
Greek Xp* for Xg^, and a,v& for <xV- 
■Spwrv;. And in the Latin Dn$ For Do- 
minus ; aa for minima find the like. J5 lit 
thefe were rather for the fpeea of 
writing, than the Secrecy. 

G Some- 

8 2 The Secret and Swift 

Sometimes words were expreffed 

only by their rirft letters. Thus did 

the Jews-write all their Memorials, 

and common Forms,which are largely 

tM- handled by Buxtorfe. Hence was it, 

that their Captain Judas had his name 

of Maccaby ; for being to fight againft 

Antiochus, he gave that faying for his 

watchword, Exod. 1 5. mnhtxi 103 10 

r.iiT. Who it like unto thee (0 Lord) 

amongji the God? infcribing in his en- 

figns the capital letters of it , ^IM 

Macabi. Whereupon after the Viclory, 

the Soldiers ftiled their Captain by 

that name. 

Tis obferved by the Rabbies, that 
many grand Myfteries are this way 
implied in the words of Scripture. 
Thus, where it is laid, Pfalnt $. cm 
Munyrife up againft mentis interpreted 
from the feveral letters, Refb the Ro- 
mans, Beth the Babylonians, Jod the 
Jonians or Grecians, Mem the Medes. 
Anfwerable unto which, that place in 
Gen. 49. 10. (rpeaking ofShilo, unto 
whom nnpuhe gathering of the people 


Messenger. 83 

fhall be) is by another RMy applied 
tothejfeu'j, Cbriftians, Heathens, and 

Upon thefe grounds likewife,is that 
Argument to prove the Trinity, from 
the fir ft verfe of Gexefis. dv>Yn wa. 
The word d^Sn Elohini, being of the 
plural number, is thought to be that 
Divine name,which denoteth the Per- 
fons of the Deity ; which Perfons are 
more particularly intimated in the 
letters of the Verb «oa, thatanfwers 
unto it : 3 Beth being put for p the 
Son, ■* Re(b for nn the Holy Ghoft, 
N Alepb for as the Father. And if 
you will believe the Jews, the Holy 
Spirit hath purpofely involved in the 
wonds of Scripture, every fecret that 
belongs to any Art or Science, under 
fueh Cabalifms as thefe. And if a man 
were but expert in unfolding df them, 
it were eafie for him to get as much 
knowledge as Adam had in his Inno- 
cency, or Humane Nature is capable 

G 2 Thefe 

84 The Secret and Swift 

Theft; kind of myfterious Interpre- 
tations from particular letters,do feem 
to be fbmevvhat favoured,- by Gods 
addition of the letter n unto the 
Gen. 17.5. name of Abr&m a-nd Sara, upon the re- 
iy ' newing of his Covenant with them ; 

which in all likelihood was not with- 
out fbme {ecret Myftery. That being 
the chief letter of the Tttr&grawmAt$n, 
might perhaps intimate thatamongfc 
their other Poderity, with the promifo 
of which he. had then BlelTed them, 
they fhould alfo be the Parents of the 
MefftaS) who was Jehovah. 
nde 1 er ' Thjs I ike wife others have con- 
ptfrr.' firmed from the example of Chrift, 
who calls himfelf Alpha, and Omeg^ 
Rev. i. 8. 

But though fuch conjectures may 
be allowable in fbme particulars, yet 
to make all. Scriptures capable of the 
Iikefecrets, does give fuch a latitude 
to mens roving and corrupt Fancies,as 
mud needs occafioa many wild and 
inn. 1 1. ftrange Abfurdities. And therefore 
' • 13- Irenxm does fitly obferve, that from 


M ESS £N GE R. 85 

fuch idle collections as thefe, many 
Herefies of the Fakntinians and Gno- 
(tich had their firfr. beginnings. 

As this wa'y of ihort writing by 
the firft letters, was of ancient ufe 
amongft the Je >»s,ib likewife amongft 
the fiomawyM'hich appears from many 
of their Contractions yet remaining, 
as S. P. D. Sdutem plurimam dicit. 
S. Pa. R. Senntus populufqm Romwus. 
C.R.Civis Romtinus. U.C.Urbs condita. 
And the like. 

Thefe (ingle letters were called 
SjgU, per Syncoptn, from tbeoblblete 
word SigiiU, whence SigilLtim. They 
were ufually infcribed in their Coins, 
Statues, Arms, Monuments, and pub- 
lick Records. You may fee ^them u' i- 
largely treated of by Valerius Probus, t t' is am ' 
where he affirms the ftudy of them to A?it is ftt 
be very neceflary for one that would forth by 
underftand the Roman Affairs. Bis ^ZJclitu 
enim exprimebant nomine Cur:.;mm , 
Jribtium, Comitiorttm, Sacerditi >rnm , 
Poteftatum, Maofflrxtuum, Pr.iftctara.- 
rum, Sacrornm ludorttm, Rermn urb.x- 
G 3 nrurz'j 

2,6 Tl> e Secret and Smft 

narum, rerummilitarium, Collegiorum, 
Dect/rUrum , Fajlorum , Numerorum, 
Menfurtrum, "Juris civ i lis y drjimilium 
They were firftufed by their Nota- 
ries, at Senates and other publick 
Affemblies, and from thence retained 
in their Statutes and Civil Laws : 
Whence Mamlius makes it the note 
of a good Lawyer. 

— Qui legum tabula* & condita jura 
N over it y at que not is kvibus pendent i a 

lit*. Thus (faith Ijidor) (A) inverted y 

BibUtmd. did formerly ftand for pupilla, and M 

eg ratkne i n ve r fed JAI for mulitr. By thefe letters 

com. mg. ^ g ^ j c p j s fignihed Deeare 

it a cenfuerunt patres. 
v-.t. cnnit. When the Judges were to inferibe 

H °'rf*'~ " t ^ e * r ^ vera l opinions on a little frone 

''""' or TeJJera, to be caft into the Urn ; 

by the note A> they did ablblve, by 

'From the * K, condemn ; by >V. L. Non liquet, 

Greek, ^- they did intimate that they could not 

T*#W te |J What tQ make of jjjg bufine f Sj 


Messenger. 87 

and did therefore fufpend their judg- 

But becaufe of thofe many Ambi- 
guities Which this contracted way of 
writing was liable unto,and the great 
Inconveniencies that might happen 
thereupon in the mifinterpretation of 
Laws ; therefore the Emperor Jufti- 
ni&n did afterwards feverely forbid 
any further ufe of them, as it were, 
calling in all thofe Law-books that 
were ft) written. Neq\ enim licentiam ¥. k J - c f- 

_ ,. ,. ■* . .... .. 7lt.ij.les. 

apenmus ex tali codice in judicium alt- r 2 , 
quid recitari. 

The chief purpofe ofthefe ancient 
Abbreviations amongft the Romans, 
was properly for their/peed. But it is 
eafie to apprehend, how by compact, 
they may be contrived alfo for Secrecy. 

G 4 CHAP. 

83 The Secret end Swft 


Of writing by invented Characters, 

~-, ,./». n- , i fr ■ * ("Letters. 
The diftintfion ofthefe '* r O Words 
fuch as fgnifie either l^ Qth ^ 

The general Rules of unfolding and ob- 
juring any Letter-characters. Horn to 
exprefs any fen fe , either by Points, or 
Lines, or Figures. 

BEfides the ways of fecret writing 
by the common letters, there 
may likewire be divers others by in- 
vented notes. 

The difference of charac~fcers,where- 
i?y feveral Languages are expreft, is 
part of the fecond general curfe in the 
confufion of Tongues ; for as before 
there was but one way of (peaking, fb 
alio but one way of writing. And as 
now, not only Nations, but particular 
Men, may difeqver their thoughts by 
any different articulate founds , fo 
Jikewife by any written figns. 


Messenger. 89 

Thefe invented Characters in the 
general, are diftinguj'Cbahle into fuch 
as fignifie either 
i. Letters. 
?. Words, 
$. Things, and Notions. 

FirftjConcerning thofe that fignifie The Let, 
Letters : To which kindjfome learned ^. chara " 
men refer the Hebrew character that 
is now in ufe ; afErming that Ezra memym. 
firft invented it, thereby the better iq &■&**&• 
conceal the fecrets of their Law, *n& jjfoh'ssai. 
that they might not have 10 much »«««/ 
as their manner of writing' common **&• 
with the Samaritans and other Schr£ 

'Twere but needlefs to let down 
any particulars^ this kind, fince it is 
To eafie for any ordinary man to in- 
vent or vary them at pleafure. 

The rules that are ufually pre- 
ferred for the unfolding of fuch 
chara&ers, are briefly theft. 

1. Endeavour to diftinguifh betwixt 
the Vowels and Conibnants. The 
Vowels may be known by their fre- 

po Ik Secret and Swift 

quency, there being no word without 
fomeofthem. If there be any fingle 
character in Englifh, it muft be one of 
thele three Vowels, a. i. o. 

2. Search after the leveral powers 
of the letters : For the underftanding 
of this, you muft mark which of them 
are moft common, and which more 
feldom ufed. (This the Printers in 
any Language can eafily inform you 
of, who do accordingly provide their 
fets of letters.) Which of*them may 
be doubled, and which not, as H. Q. 
X. T. And then for the number of 
Vowels or Confbnants in the^ begin- 
ning, middle, or end of words, a man 
muft provide fevefal Tables, whence 
he may readi'y guels at any word, 
from the number and nature of the 
letters that make it As what words 
confift only of Vowels ; what have 
one Vowel and one Confonant, whe- 
ther the Vowel be firft; as in thefe 
words, as. if. .it. of. 
Orlaft, as in thefe words, Be. he. me. 
by Ay. ly. my. ty. da. to.fb. &c. And fb for 


Messenger. pi 

all other words according to their 
feveral quantities and natures. 

Thefe Tables muft be various ac- 
cording to the difference of Languages. 
There are divers the like rules to be 
obferved , which aje too tedious to 
recite.; you may fee them largely 
handled by Baptijla Porta, and Gufta- 
vtti Stknm. 

The common rules of unfolding 
being once known, a man may the In thefe 
better telUiow to delude them; either c ? fes0r ,* 
by leaving out thofe letters that are of L not to be 

left ufe, as H. K>>Q> X. T. and putting regarded. 

other characters inftead of them, that 
fhall fignifie the Vowels .- So that the 
number of this invented Alphabet 
will be perfect; and the Vowels, by 
realbn of their double character, left 

7 f 

diftinguifhable. Or a man may like- 
wife delude the rules of difcovery, by 
writing continuately , without any 
diftinftion betwixt the words,or with 
a falfe diftin&ion or by inferting nulls 
and non-figmfc<wtS) &C. 


o i The Sfcret and Swift 

Thefe Chara&ers are befides liable 
to all thofe other ways, wherefcy the 
common letters may be obfcured , 
whether by changing their places, or 
their powers. 

The particulars of this kind may be 
of fuch great variety as cannot be di 
ftin&ly recited. But it is the grand 
inconvenience of all thefe ways of 
fecrecy by invented Characters, that 
they are not without fufpicion. 

For the remedying of which, there 
have been fgme other inventions of 
writing by Points or Lines,or Figures, 
wherein a man would never rmftruft 
any private melfage 5 there being no- 
thing to be difcerned in thefe kinds of 
intimation, but only, either fome con- 
futed, and cafual, or elfe fome Mathe- 
matical Defcri prions. As you may fee 
in thefe following examples. 

'By To'mts alone. 





• • 


« ♦ 










• • 


• • 



j\y Line j a. 




7ke Secret and Swift 
By Mathematical Figures. 

By P,wits>Lines .and FiTxres m:x:i together. 

- ^ 



Each of which Figures do exprefs 
thefe words : 

There is no Safety but by Flight. 

The direction both for the making 
ind unfolding of thefe Defcriptions, is 
this: Let the- Alphabet bedefcribed 
at equal diftances, upon lbme thin 
and narrow Plate, Paftboard, or the 
like, thus : 


mmmmmmmm\$mmm \ 

Let the fides of the Paper which 
you are to write upon, be fecretly di- 
vided into equal parts, according to 
the breadth of the Plate ; and then by 
application of this to the Epiftle, it is 
eafieto conceive how fuch a writing 
may be both competed and relblved. 
The Points, the ends of the Lines, and 
the Angles of the Figures, do each of 
them by their different fituations, ex- 
prefs a feveral letter. 


$6 7 he Secret and Stiift 

This may Hkewife be otherwife 
performed, if the Alphabet be con. 
rrivtd in a Triangular form, the mid- 
dle part of it being cut out. 

And fo for 
a fqaare 
or round 

fat. p. 

The larger thefe directories ate, by 
fo much the Jefs liable unto error 
will the writing be, that isdefcribed 

It is eafie to apprehend, by thefe 
particulars, how a man may contrive 
any private faying in the form of a 
Landskip or other pjdture. There may 
be divers the like ways, whereby this 
invention of Secrecy may be further 
obfcur'ed; but they are in themfelves 
fo obvious , that they need not any 
larger explication. 


Messenger. 07 


Of Characters that exprefs tvtrds. The 
frft invention ofthefe. Ofthqfe that 
fignifie things and notions, as Hiero- 
glyphicks t Einbltms. 

THe next particular to be di£ 
cou/fed of, is concerning Cha- 
racters that exprefs words. The wri- 
ting by thefe is properly ftUed Steno- 
graph?, or Short-hand, Gcriptur* com- cent. 1. ad 
pendiunty cum verba non ptrfirih'mtts fed Be^.Efijf. 
fenimus foith Lypftns: The art of them * 7 ' 
is fo contrive fuch figures for ieveral 
(yllables as may eafily he joyned toge- 
ther in one form, according as different 
words (hall require.Thus 'tis ordinary 
to reprelent any proper name,by ibme 
fuch unufual characters may contain 
in it all the letters of that name for 
which it is intended. Of this nature 
was that angular Hgureyfb much ufed 
by the Grecians of eld, which ini^ht^^* 
becefolved into the letters wptcu afc?, 
H This 

p 8 The Secret and Swift 

This mark was efteemed fo lacred 
amongft the Ancients, that Antiochui 
Soter, a perpetual Conqueror, did al- 
ways inftamp it upon his Coin, and 
inlcribe it on his Enfigns ; unto which 
he did pretend to be admonifhed in a 
Dream,by an Apparition of Alexander 
the Great. And there are many fuper- 
ftitious women in thefe times, who be- 
lieve this to be lb lucky a character, 
that they always work it upon the 
fwadling cloaths of their yourtg chil- 
dren, thinking thereby to make them 
more healthful and profperous in their 
lives. Unto this kind alfo, (bme refer 
the characters that are us'd in Magick, 
which are maintained to have, not 
Only a fecret fignification, but like- 
wife a natural efficacy. 

This fhort-hand writing is now fb 
ordinary in practice (it beisgufual for 
any commonMechanick both to write 




and invent it) that I lhall not need to 
Jet down any particular example of 
it. In ancient times it was not fo fre- 
quently ufed : But then there was a 
two-fold kind of it. £?£* 

Private. ceroSus 

Pdlkk. aSon"ft k 

Thefe private charafters were pra- thefe later 
cYifed by the* Roman Magistrates, and inventi- 
others of eminent favour amongft ™p'J?.'£ r 
tflem, who being often importuned 14. 
to write in the commendation of thole 
perfbrts they knew not, were fain to 
agree upon fbme fecret notes,whereby 
their ftrious Epiftles might be diftin- 
guifhed from thofe of form. Whence c*/i«*»». 
the Proverb aroCe, De metier i nota n ^ e ™ oJu 
eommtndare. ercet.c.^t. 

The other characters of publick and 
common ufe, are rriany of them ex- 
plained by Valerius Probus in his Book 
de Uteris antiquis. And there is a whole 
Volume or Dictionary of them, kt^.^% 
forth by Janus Gruterus.Vrom the pra- s«&. 
ffcice of thefe came the word Notarzus, * c ^J^ m 
as * St. Anfiin oblerves. ,, a $/ 

H 2 The 

ioo Tl?e Secret and Swift 

The firft invention of them is com- 
monly afcribed to Tj>ro,who was a fcr- 
* inchon. vant unto Cicero. So * Eufeb'msy and 
t De in- ^ PolytCPirgil. B u t Trithemius affirms, 
Tl. Ts™ That Cicero himfelf writ a Treatife on 
De ptfygr. this fubjeft , which was afterwards 
augmented by St.Cypritfi. And that he 
had found in an old Library the copy 
of a Pfaiter written in thefe chara- 
£ters,infcribed by fome ignorant man, 
with this Title : Pfulterium in lingti 
Lib. i}. ad That Cicero was not unacquainted w j t j 1 jjjgfg noteSjina y b e evident from 

that paffage to Atthus .- Quod, sd tt de 
le%Mwfcripfij>Arum i*ttileKtt t c¥edo quid 
Stai Mfx&wfcrifjzrain. 

Prohg. mt. ^ et - DtMMxs attributes the firft in- 
cmrai. ' mention of thefe to the old Poet En- 
fop. i;dor. „f US . w hofe beginnings in this kind, 
' s ~ ' '' dichifrerwards receivcfucdeflive addi- 
tion from the works of Tjrp, PhiUr- 
giruT, Aquila, and Seneca the^Father, 
by whom they were increafed to the 
number of 5000. 



Messenger. ioi 

J$mHerm*n?t0s Hugo, a late Jefiiit, Deorig. 
will have this flaort-hand writing to f cr f"'* , > 
be of far more ancient uje ; am rnaing finm. 
that David alludes to the prattife of it 
in that phrafe, Pfal. 45.1. The pen of a 
H&dy writer. And that the writing 
upon the wall in Daniel 5. 25. which 
fo puzted the Chaldean Wizards^ was 
described in fuch kind of Chara&eis. 
But whether this were fo or nor, is 
not much material : It is foficiently 
pertinent to the prefent enquiry, that 
the ufe of thefe word-chara&ers may 
well enough conduce to the ieceecy of 
any written mefTage. 

The third and laft fort of figns that 
have been anciently uled for the cx- 
preflion oft things and notions, are either 
Mittorfyphicks or Emblems. 

I . Concerning Him>gljpbicks. The Of Hjero- 
word fignifies Sacred FTculpbines, which g'yP hicks - 
were engraven upon Pillars,Obelisks, 
Pyramids, and other Monuments be- 
fsre the invention of letters. Thus 
the Egyptians were wont, to exprefs 
their minds, by the pictures of fiich »"''; -*•■ 
H ? Crea-^ 7 - 11 ' 

ioi The Secret and Swift 

Creatures as did bear in them fome 
natural refemblance to the thing in- tended. By the fhape of a Bee they 
de invent^ ^p^^^ a King, intimating that 
3 '' he fhould be endowed with Induikry, 
Hony, and a Sting. By a Serpent with 
his tail in his mouth, the year, whicfc 
returns into it felfl And f which was 
a kind of prophetical HieroglyptuckJ 
by the fign of a Crofi they did anci- 
ently denote fptm venture falutk, or 
; vitam aternam, as Pet. Crinitus relates 
JfdplrJ out of Rujjk wis. * Philo reckons up the 
{ 7 c - *• knowledge of thefe, amongft tbofe 
vhatofis. otner a hftrufe Egyptian Arts, wherein 
Mofet is (aid to be fb expert. And C/e- mens relates of Pythagoras, how he 
V at - was content to be circumched, that 
fb he might be admitted to the un- 
derftanding of thole many and great 
Myfteries, .which were this way deli- 
vered by the ancient Priefts, whodid 
conceal all their Learning under fiwh 
Lucan. i. 3. kind of Magical exprWuons as the 
Poet ftiles them. 



Nonautn flumineat Memphis contexere hyblos 
Noverat , & faxit t ant fan valuer efifrferaque^ 
Sqplpiaq-y fejvabant magicas an tm alia lingua*. 

Plutarch fpeaks of aTemple in Egypt Libr0 de 
dedicated to Minerva, in the front of fejf 
which there was placed the Image of 
an Infant ,an old manfl. Hawkjby which 
they did reprefent God; a Fi(h,t\iQ ex- 
predion of Hatred; and a Sea-horfe, the 
common Hieroglyphick of Impu- 
dence. The conft ru cTrion of all being 
this, ye that are bom to die, know that 
God hseth Impudence. 

Of this nature were thofe prefents Herodot. 
fent unto Darius, when he was almoft J*W-*- 
wearied in his War againft the Scythi- cill°Ahx. 
<Mw,which werea Bird,a Moufe,a Frog, strom - s- 
and certain Arrows ; intimating that 
urtlefs the Per funs could fly as Birds, 
or hide themfelves under, water as 
Frogs, or inhabit the Caverns of the 
Earth as Mice, they (hou Id not efcape 
the Scythian Arrows. Of this kind 
likewife were fome Military figns 
araongft the Romans. When any thing 
was to be carried with filence and fe- 
ll 4 crecy, 

104 ? k Secret and Swift 

crecy, they lifted up the reprefeqtati- 
Fterius on of a Afl/«tf *»r,fchereby teaching the 
Hieroglyph. Captains, that -their counfels and con- 
1 3 ' "' ■*' trivances muft be as inextricable as a 
Labyrinth, which is feigned to be the 
habitation of that Monfter, 
Emblems 2 - Like unto thefe Hieroglyphicks, 
from the are the expreflions by EmblemsJThey 
c-eek^ W ereufually inftrted as ornaments, 
cjLs£~ upon veffels of gold, and other mat* 
interferes, ters of (late or pfeafure.Of this nature 
mjiccre. are ^ fl- am p S f many ancient Me- 
dals, the impreflfes of Arms, the Fron* 
tifpieces of Books, &c. 

The kinds of them are chiefly two- 

i. Natura/f Which are grounded 
upon iome refemblance in the proper- 
ty and efTence of the things tbjem- 
felves. So. a Dolphin, which is a fwift 
Creature ,* being defcribed upon an 
Anchor, wbkhkrves/brthe ftay and 
reft of a Ship, fignifies Fejima-lentl, 
Deliberation in counfeI,aad DUpatoh 
in execution. A young Stork carrying 
the old one, Filial gratitude. 

2. Hip- 

Messenger. io< 

a. Hijhrhd) Thoic that refer to 
ibme common relation So the pi&ure 
of Prometheus gnawed by a Vulture, 
flgnifiss the defer t of over- much cnri- 
ohty. Phaeton, the folly of rafbneis. 
Hsrciffw^ the punilhmeRt of felf-love. 

It was formerly efteemed a great 
fign of wit and invention,handlbmely 
to convey any noted laying, under 
fuch kind of expreffions. 

Concerning an umverfalChara^tr, that 
may le tegthk to au Nations and Lan- 
guagcsH'ht bentft and poflibility of this. 

AFter the Fall of Adam, there were 
two general Curies inflicted on 
Mankind.'The one upon their Labour s y 
the other upon their Language. 

Againfl: the firft of thefe we do natu- 
rally endeavour to provide,by all thofe 
common Arts and Profeflions, about 
whieh the World is bufied ; feeking 
thereby to abate the fweat of their 
Brows in the earning of their Bread. 


106 The Secret and Swift: 

Agatnft the other,the beft help that 
we can yet boa ft of, is the Latin 
tongue,and the other learned Langua- 
ge*, which by reafbn of their genera- 
lity, do fbmewhat reftore us from the 
firft confufion. But now if there wete 
filch an univerfal character to exprefs 
things and notions,as might be legible 
to all People and Countries, lb that 
men of feveral Nations might with the 
fame eaie both write and read it, this 
invention would be a far greater ad- 
vantage in this particular,and mighti- 
ly conduce to the fpreading and pro- 
mpting of all Arts and Sciences : Be- 
cause that great part of our timewhich 
is now required to the Learning of 
words T might then be imployed in the 
ftudy of things. Nay, the confufion at 
Babel mi^ht this way have been reme- 
dwd,if every one could have expcefled 
his own meaning^ the fame kind of 
Character. But ihen perhaps the art 
of Letters was not invented. 

That fueh a manner ©f writing is 
already ufed in fome parts of the 


Messenger. 107 

World, the Kingdoms of the high 
Levant , may evidently appear from 
du/ers credible Relations, Trigaultiu* Hi fi 0K Sim 
amrmsjtbat though thofe ofiCbina and ™f.ii.e.% 
Japan dq as much differ in their Lan 
gnage, as the Hebrew and the Dutch § Bacon Aug, 
vet either of them can, by this help of ment - Sctm 

* u n. 11 1 ent.l.6.c.i-i 

a common character, as well under- Vo f Gr> * 
ftand the books and letters of the i-'i-e .41. 
other&,as if fchey were only their own. "^o r f ugt 

And for fome particulars, this ge- j£it "f* 
neral kind of writing is already at- 
tained amongft us alio. 

1. MaMy Nations do agree in the 
characters of the common numbers, 
defcribing them either th&Roman way 
by letters, as 1. 11. v. x. C d. m. or 
elle the Barbarian way by figures, as 
1, 2. 5. 10. &c So likewile forjthat 
whicn we call Philofbphical number, 
which is any fuch mtafure whereby 
we judge the differences betwixt feve- 
ral jubilances, whether in weight, or 
length, or capacity ; each of thefe are 
expreft in fevefaf Languages bv the 
lame character. Thus 9 fignifies a 


1 08 Tlie Secret and Swift 

Scruple , 5 a Drachm, and Vo of the 

2. The Aftronomers of feveral 
Countries do exprefs both the heaven- 
ly Signs, and Planets, and Afpe&sby 
the fame kind of notes : As,t,o,ti,s, 
&t. ft,¥,tf,9,&c. rf,#,£;0,*. Which 
characters (as it is thought; were 
firft invented by the ancient Aftro- 
logers for the fecrecy of them, the 
better to conceal their facred and 
myfterious profeflion from vulgar 

2. The Chymical Treadles that are 
written in different languages,doallof 
them agree in the fame form of wri- 
ting their Minerals. Thofe that are at- 
tributed to any of the Planets, are de- 
cyphered by the character of the Pla- 
net to which they belong. The reft by 
other particular figns, as A for Salt 
Ammoniack, * for Arfnick, &c. 

4. Mufical notes in moft Countries 
are the fame : Nor is there any reafbn 
wfty there may not be fuch a general 
kind of writing invented for the ex- 



predion of every thing elfe as well as 
thefe particulars. 

In the contrivance of this there 
muft be as many feveral characters as 
there are primitive words. To which 
pur pofe the Hebrew is the beft pat- 
tern, becaufe that Language confifts 
of feweft Radicals. 

Each of thefe primitives muft have 
fome particular marks to diftinguifh 
the Cafes, Conjugations, or other 
neceflary variations of thole Deriva- 
tives that depend upon it. 

In the reading of fuch a writing, 
tfiough men of feveral Countries 
fhould each of them differ in their 
voices, and pronounce feveral vords, 
yet the fenfe would be full the fame. 
As it is in the picture of a Man,aHorfe, 
or "tree, which to all Nations do ex- 
prefs the fame conceit,though wch of 
thefe Creatures be ftiled by feveral 
names, according to the difference of 

Suppofe that Aftronomical fign s 
were to be pronounced, a Jew would 



no 71?e Secret and Swift 

call it iiw ; a Grecjan,Taoep>' ; an Ita- 
lian, Toro ; a Frenchman, Taureatt ; a 
German,«S>/>r ; an Englifhntan,a BhU. 

So likewife for that chara&er.which 
in Tiro's notes fignifies the World, a 
Jew would read it \in ; a Grecian, 
K$7 /&(&.', an Italian,?/ monAt\ a French- 
man,/*? mondc\ a German,J?e/^.Though 
feveral Nations may differ in theejc- 
preflion of things, yet they all agree in 
the lame conceit of them. 

The learning of this character will 
not be more difficult than the learning 
of any one Language, becaufe there 
needs not be more figns for tfie ex- 
preffion of things, than there is now 
for the expredion qf words. Amongft 
thole in Qhba. and ^fap.w, there is (aid 
to* e about (even or eight thouftnd. 

The perfecting of fuch an invention 
were the only way to unite the feven- 
ty two Languages of the fir ft confu- 
fion ; and thendfore may ver^ well 
Jefdrve their endeavours, who have 
both abilities and leifure for fuch 
kind of Enquiries. 


Messenger. iii 


C o t mrwMg the third vnty offecr* eUf- 
courfwg by ftgns and geftures t which 
mayfenife either 



THe third way" of difcourfing was 
by figns and gefture«,which(as 
they are fijrviceable to this purpofe) 
may be diftinguifhed into fuch as are 
fignificant, «3ier 
i. Ex eongruo. 
2, Or ex placito. 
i . Ex catfgruo, when there is fbme 
natural refemblance and affinity be- 
twixt the a£tion done,and the thing to 
be expreft.Of which kind are all thofe 
outward geftures, whereby not only 
dumb Creatures, but men alio do ex- 
prefs their inward paflions, whether 
of Joy, Anger, Fear, &c. For, 

<Stye ttcens vocem tftrkttq; vuttus habet. 


Hi The Secret" and Si*fi 

And the Wife man notes it of the 
Prov<S.i3. Scorner, That he w'tnk&h with his eyes, 
he fpetktth witfr his feet jht teackethwifh 
his fingers. 

Of this kind likewifc are many 
religious a&ions.and circumftances of 
Divine worfhip,not only amongft the 
ancient Heathen, but fbme thar, were 
particularly enjoyned the Prielts and 
ievkes of the oM Law, and fom«too 
that are now in ufe in thefe timet of 
r'ne Gofpel For by fuch bodily 
^eftures and figns, we may as well 
fpeak unto God as unto men. 

To this kind alio are reducible thofe 
actions olform, that are recurred as 
neceflary circumftances in many civil 
affairs and ^aibtick fblemnities,, which 
are uihalty Fuch, as in themfelves are 
apt to figmfie the thing for which they 
are meant. 

But now, fometimes the intended 
meaning of thefe geftures is concealed 
under a fecret fimilitude. As it was in 
that a£fc QEThrafiJwUu^whQ being cop- 
fulted with,how to maintain a tyranny 



that was newly ufarped : He bid the 
Melfenger attend him in the Field ; 
where with his Wand he whipt off 
thole higher Ems of Corn that did 
over-fop the reft ; intimating, that it 
confifted in cutting office Peers and 
Nobility, who were likely to be moft 
impatient of Subjection* This I may 
call a Paraboikd way of (peaking by 

2. Ex p/.icitoywhen thefc figHS have 
their fignification from ufeand mut«> 
al compact; which kind of ipedctng, 
as it refers to iafcivious intimations, 
is laigely handled by Ovid, de Art* 

Verba fkferciliis fine vcfce locfitentia di- 

Verba leges digitii, &C. 

By the help of this it is common 
far men of feveral Nations, who un- 
derftand not one another Languages, 
to entertain a mutual Commerce and 
Traaick. And 'tis a ftrange thing to 
behold, what DUtagues ©f G*ftures 
I there 


ii4 *^ e $ ecr€t an ^ Sipijfi 

there will pais bet vixt fueh as are 
born both Deaf and Dumb ; who are 
able by this means alone, to anfwer 
and reply unto one another as dire&ly 
as if they had the benefit of Speech. 
' lis a great part of the State and Ma- 
jefty belonging to the Turkifh Em 
peror, that he is attended by Mutes, 
with whom he may dilcourfe' con- 
cerning any private bufinefs, which 
he would not have others to under- 

It were a rnilerabJe thing for a ra- 
tional Soul to fee impnibned in fuch a 
Body, cs had no way at all toexprefs 
its Cogitations ; which would be (b 
in all tliac are born Deaf, if that which 
nature denied them, were not in this 
relpett fupplied by a fecond nature, 
cufrom and ufe. 
" Butihy the way) 'tis very obferva- 
;*':' bte which * Vtilefim ^elites of Pet, 
"'"■ " r " 3 Pontim a Friend of us, who by an un- 
beai*i-of Art taught the Deaf to fpeak. 
Doeem yrimmnfembtre^ res ipfaa digito 
md»tmth y q»* clnrttftribut f/Jis ferijh 

ctrtntur ; 

Messenger. i i 

carentur \ detnde ad motm Ungu&, qui 
char after ibus refpondtrent provocando. 
Firft learning them to v* rite the name 
of any thing he fhould point to ; and 
after-wards provoking them to fuch 
morions of the Tongue as might an- 
fwer the feveral words. 'T is probable 
that this invention wefl followed, 
might be of Angular ufe for thofe that 
ftand in need of fuch helps. Though 
certainly -that was far beyond it, (if 
true) which is related of an ancient 
Doctor, Gabriel Neale, that he could 
underftand any word by the meer mo- 
tion of the Lips, without toy utter- 

The particular ways of difcourfing 
by Gefture^are not to be numbred, as 
being almoft af infinite variety, accor- 
ding as the feveral Fancies of men fhall 
impole fignifications upon all Rich 
figns or anions as are capable of fuf- 
ficiem; difference. 

But fome there are of more efpecial 
note far their ufe and antiquity. Such 
is that upon the j&ynts and fingers of 

I 2 the 

1 1 6 Tl?e Secret and Swift 

the handjCommonfy ftited Arthroh^i*^ 

or Daftylolooia. largely treated of by 

* nb. dek- the venerable * B?de, f Pieriw, and 

q ^Jdi- others. In whom you maylee,how~the 

fitorwn Ancients were wont to exprefsany 
vedejn- number >by the leveral pcftures of the 
^Huloghi hands and fingers : The numbers un- 
fhic.i^-,. der a hundred, were denoted by the 
': ': &c - left hand.and thole aboVt,by the rieht 

Lxhus An- • • T t or m j- 

tiq. us. hand. Hence \f, commending 
1*1 c. i2. Pylfa* for his old Age, lays, That he 
ssiyr. io. rec jj 0ne ij hfs years upon his right 

Svrltx mmirum, qui totter facula vitam 
Dift nitty Atqite fuos jam dtxtr.i compntAt 

There are fivers phages in rhe 
ancient Authors,borh Sacred and Pro- 
fane, which do evidently allude to this 
kkid of reckoning. 

Hence it" is eafie to conceive, how 
the Iejters,as tyell as the numbers,mav 
be thus appKed to the feveral parts of 
tfie hand, fo that a man might with 
divers touchesjmnpe up an/ fenfe,th« 


Messenger. 117 

he bath occafion to difcover unto a 

This may be performed, either as 
the numbers are fet down in the Au- 
thors before cited, or elfe by any other 
way of compact that may be agreed 

As for example : Let the tops of the 
fingers fignifie the five vowels ; the 
middle parts, the five firftconfbnants ; 
the bottoms of them, the five next 
cnnibnants ; the (paces betwixt the 
fingers, the four next. One finger laid 
on the fide of the hand may fignifie T, 
two fingers V the confbnant, three 
W, the little finger croffed X, the 
wrift Y, the middle of the hand Z. 

But becaufe fuch yarious gesticula- 
tions as are required to this, will not 
be without fufpicion,therefore it were 
a better way, to impofe Significations 
upon fach aftions as are ofjnore com- 
mon unfufpe&ed ufe; as fcratching of 
the head, rubbing the feveral parts of 
the face, winking of the eyes, twifting 
of the beard, &c. Any of which, or 
I 3 all 

1 8 7be Secret and Swift 

all of them together, may be as well 
contrived to ferve for this purpeie, 
and with much more fecrecy. 

In which Art,if our gamingCheats, 
andPopilh Miracle-impoftors, were 
but well verfed,it might much advan- 
tage them, in their coufening trade of 

Concerning the fwiftnefs of inform^H- 
pns 9 eithef by qualities, as theimj^ffi- 
on of imagination, and the fenfititoc 
/pedes; orbyfpiritHalSubfkanceSy as 

HAving already treated concern- 
ing the feveral ways of fecrecy 
in difcourfing, I fhall in the next place 
enquire, How a man may with the 
greater! J&iftnefs and fpeed, difcover 
his intentions to one that is far diftant 
from* him. 

There is nothing (we lay) (b fwift 
as thought, and yet the impreffion of 


Messenger. up 

thcfe in another, might be as quick »U 
moft as the fir ft act, if there were but 
fuch a g»eat power in imagin tion, as 
fome Uter * Philofophers have attri- \ Mar P: 

bUted tO It. log. Platan. 

Next to the a£te of thought^ the t i-a. 
fjlicies «f fight do feem to be of thcjj^jf*" 
quiekeft motion. We fee the light of cmat. 
the Eaft will in a moment fill the He- P* r <"4«<- 
mlfphere, and the eye does prefentiy 
difcern an objeQ: that 4s' very remote. 
How we may by this means commu- 
nicate our thoughts at great diftances, 
I ftuUdtiCOurfe afterwards. 

The Subftances that are raoft con- 
fiderable for the fwiftnefs of their 
motion, are 

LC erf or eat. 

Amoogft all created Subftances, 

there are not anv of fo fwift a motion 

as Aagels or Spirits. Becaufe there is Spirits. 

not either within their natures, any 

fuch Indifpofition and Reluftancy, or 

wkhout them in the nrodiurn,aiiy fbeh 

impediment as may in the leaft man- 

I 4 ner 

i jo Ike Secwt and Swift 

aer retard their couifes.And therefore 
have the ancient Philofophers ica- 
ployed thefe as the caufes of that mad 
celerity of the celeftiaJ Orbs ; though 
according to their fuppofitioni.I think 
it would be a hard match, if there 
were a Race to be run betwixt the 
Primum mobile and an Angel. It being 
granted that neither of them could 
move in an infant, it«would be but 
an even ky, which fhould prove the 

From the fitnefs of Spirits in this 
regard, to convey- any meflage, are 

•)»Ho rh«y in the learned Languages called 

tiyy.^ot Meflengers. 

'■*»&' w - How if a man had but fiicb famili- 

Flutarch. ar J t y w j t J, Qne of t fe e (^ as Socrates \S 

•fyriu,. laid to have with his Tutelary Gemm : 

D'.fertat. If we could (end but one of them upon 

2 <J, =7- arj y er rand, there would be no quicker 

way thanjhis for tfaedilpatch of fouti- 

neis at aW dtftanoes. 

That they have been often thus im- 
pteyed, is affirmed by divers relations. 
PstsmiMtbimg at fame, wa&informed 


Messenger. i h 

by an Apparition , of that Vi&ory Laamt. 
which P aulas iheir General had db- W- 1 - *- 
tained over King Perfes in Maeedo?), £/. Max. 
tfee very fame day wherein the Battel l - *• c - «- 
was fought ; which was a long time Flor ™y Lz > 
before amy other Meffenger could ar- 
jive with the news." 

And it is ftoried of many others, 
that whilft ihey luve refickd in re- 
mote Countries, they have known the 
deathof their Friends,even in the very 
hour of their departure ; either by 
Btleeding n or by Dieaa s, or tome fuch 
way of intimation. W hich, though it 
be commonly attributed to the opera- 
tion of Sympathy ; yet it is more pro- 
bably to fee ascribed unco the Spirit or 
Genius. There being a more elpeeial 
acquaintance and commerce betwixt 
the TiKe'ary Angels ot particular 
Friends, ihey are lometimes by them 
informed (though at great diflances) 
of fuch remarJiabUaccidents as befall 
one another. 

But this way there is little hopes to 
advantage our enquiry, becaule it is 


ill The Secret and Smft 

not fb eafie to imploy a good Angel, 
nor "fare dealing with a bad one. 

The Abbot Trithemws, in his Books 
concerning the feveral ways of feeret 
and fpeedy difcourfing,does pretend to 
handle the forms of conjuration, call- 
ing each kind of Character by the 
name of Spirits thereby to deter the 
vulgaf from learching into his Works. 
But under this pretence,, he is thought 
alfo to deliver fome Diabolical Ma- 
ptffiw gick.Efpecially in one place where he 
Gram. i. 1. {p^fo f the three Saturnine Angels, 
4 jfnd certain Images, by which, in the 
polygraph, fpace rf twenty four hours, a man 
/. 3 .f. 16. may be informed of news from any 
part of the World. And this was the 
main reafon, why by Junius his ad- 
vice, Frederick the fecond,Pri«ee Pala- 
ttne,did caufe the original Manufcript 
©f that work to be burned. Which 
action is fo much (though it fhoaW 
ff T,t feem a«i«ft*y> blamed by Sthnus. 


Messenger. 122 


Concerning the fiviftnefs of conveyance 
by Bodies, whether 'Inanimate, as 
Jrrows,Bulkts; or Animate,*** Me» 9 
Betfts, Birds. 

THe Bodies that are moft eminent 
for their fwiftnefc, may be di- 
ftinguifhed into fuch as are 


C Animate. 

Thefe inanimate Bodies, as Arrows, inanimate 
Bullets, &c. have only a violent mo- B^tfes. 
tion, which cannot therefore be conti- 
nued to id great a distance as fbme 
occafions would require : But for lb 
much (pace as they do move, they are 
far i vwfter than the natural motion of 
any animated body. How thefe have 
been contrived to the fpeedy convey^ 
anoeof fecret meffages, hath bees for? 


124 ^7 ;<? Secret and Swift 

merly difcourfed, in the fourth Chap- 
ter, which I now forbear to repeat. 

Thofe living bodies that are moft 
oblervable for their fpeed and celerity 
in Meflages, are either Men, Beafts, 
Birds : Though I doubt not, but that 
Fifhes alfo may be (erviceable for this 
purpof especially the Dolphin, which 
is reported to be of the greateft fwift- 
nefs, and moft eafily cicurated'or 
made tame. 

Men. A mongft the ancient Footmen,there 

are fbme upon record for their incre- 
dible fwiftnefs. is reported to be 

sohnut. fb quick in his running, Vtarettupew 

polyb'Jt. detjttbus & cavo pnivere, nulla indicia 
rdinquertt vefiigiortim, that he left no 
impreffion of his foottteps on the hol- 
low lands. And it is related of a Boy 
amongftthe Romans, bejngbuteigjw 

ibid. years old, thnt did run five and forty 
mile in an afternoon. Jnijiius and 
Pkfloipidtsjtwo Footmen unto Alexan- 
der theGreat,are laid to have run 1 200 
/f/tdu in a day. Which relations will 
item lefs incredible, if we confider 


Messenger. 125 

the ancient Exercifes and Games of 
' this kind, together with the publick 
fame and rewards for thofe that were 
moft eminent. 

Amiwigft the variety of Beafts,there Swifcnefs 
are Ibme of more tfpecial note for 
their ftrength and fwiftnefs. Scdiger £*«>•• aoy. 
mentions a ftory , (though he diftrufts 
the truth of it) of a certain Beaft call- 
ed Ellend^ two of which being joy ned 
in a little Cart, arefaid to pais three 
hundred leagues a day upon r,he Ice. 

In former Ages,and in other Couq- 
tries, the Dromedary, and Camel, and 
Mule, were ©f more common ufc : But 
in thefe times and places the Horfef for 
the moft part) ferves inftaad of them 
all ; by the help of which, we have 
our fwifteft rreans of ordinary con- 
veyance. The Cuftomof riding Poft, 
by renewing both Horfe and Man at 
fetStages,is of ancient Invention. He- 
rodotus relates it to be ufed by Xerxes Lib. s. 98. 
in the Grecian War ,andthat it was by 
the Perftans called 'A^aspwo^The par- 
ticulars that concern th«Ie kind of 


i 2 6 The Secret and Swift 

Conveyances amongfb the Ancients, 

are largely handled by Htrmannus 

H^° hb A- origint fcrihendi y c*pi<\. 

mt mil. Pliny tells us of certain Mares in Lu- 

l 8. c.+%,p an }a, which do conceive metely by 

trie Weft Wind, that alone (without 

the copulation of any Male) ferving 

toa&uate their heat, and to generate 

their young. Which are like wife men- 

Georg. 3. tfoned by PirgiL, 

Except ante/; nuras kves, &fiepefirn tdis 
Qon]ugiis y vento gravida, 8rc. 

Methinks thefe children of the 
vind, fhould for their fleetnefs make 
excellent Poft horfes, and much con- 
duce to the fpeedy conveyance of any 

The Paraceifinnf talk of natural 
means to extract the metal and fpirit 
outof ^ne Horfe,and infufe it into ano- 
r he , )\ enabling them to carry a man 
faff / and fnifrly, through enemies, 
pr^'inices, or other dangerous places. 
Arid fuch Horfes (fay they) were uled 


Messenger. 127 

by tjie Wife men of the fcaft at our Sa- 
viour s Nativity ; tor they had not 
otjjerwiie been able to have kept pace 
with a Star, or to have pafled fo great 
a Journy as it was to Jernjakm, which 
is thought to be five or fix hundred 
miles at the leaft, from the places of 
their habitation, If this conceit were 
feafible, it would much promote the 
fpeed of conveyances ; but I think it 
may juftly be referred amongft the 
other Dreams of the Melancholick 

Amongft all animate bodies,there is The fwift. 
not any that have naturally fo fwift a j^ of 
motion as Birds, which if a man could 
well imploy in the difpatch of any 
errand, there would be but little fear 
that fuch Meflengers fhould be either 
intercepted or corrupted. 
' That this hath heen-attempted, and 
effe&ed by many of the Ancients, is 
affirmed by divers regions. P//*jt tells f * /Jl 
xxsofFolaterrantts, that he difcbvered ' 
aQonqueft he ha4 gptfeo, unto the 
City otRemeJty lending gutSwaitows, 


1 2 8 The Secftt and Swift 

which fhould fly thither, being anoin- 
ted over with the colour of Victory. 
And of another, who fending one of 
thefe Birds into a btfieged City , 
(whence (he was before taken from 
her young ones) and tying a firing 
unto her with certain knots upon it, 
did thereby fhew, after what number 
of days their Aids would corftej at 
which time they fhould make art Ir- 
ruption upon the enemy. 

And el fe where in the fame Book, 
cap 37. he relates, How Hircius the Conful, 
and Brutus, who was befieged in Mu- 
tiny did this way maintain mutual 
intelligence , by tying their Letters 
unto fuch Pigeons, as were taught be- 
fore-hand to fly from the Tents to the 
City, and from thence to the Tents 
ufitr.Ani- ^owThaurofihems did by this means 
rmbitm, lend the news of his Vi&ory at Olym>- 
1. 6. c 7. pj a> t0 his Father zxMgim, is related 
by jElian, 

Anacreon has an Ode upon fuch a 
Pigeon, which he himfe¥had oftert 


Messenger. up 

ufed as a Meffenger, wherein the Bird 
is feigned to fay, 

Aia^ol 70^0.070/ 

Aon fnw opa$c««i/s 

Unto this invention alfo Juvenal is s *w- 4- 
thought to allude, where he lays, J**"fi"* 

—tanquam e diver fispartibtts orbis, 
Anxia prmipiti veniffet epifiola fennL 

Lypftui relates out oiVarro^ that it satun. 
wasufual for the Roman Magiftrates, f™' 7 ' J * 
when they went unto the Theatre, or 
other iuch publick meetings, whence 
they could not return at pleafure, to 
carry fuch a Pigeon with them, that if 
any unexpected bufinefs fhould hap- 
pen,they might thereby give warning 
to their Friends or Families at home. 
By which relations you may iee, 
how commonly this invention was 
pra&ifed amongft the Ancients. Nor 
hath it been left ufed in thefe later 
K times. 

i jo 7k Secret and Smfl 

times, efpecially in thofe Countries, 

where by reafbn of continual Wars 

and Diffentions, there have been more 

particular and urgent jiecerfiey for 

w*. j» je- fuch kind of conveyances. Nunc vui- 

Taf'Tgrtffi** res eft, col»mb.ts_ habere, ad 

ejufmodi Jaffa paratt/s, faith Cajaubon. 

Ummm. Harum of ere, nqftrates hoc bello civili, 

mveget. frequenter adjuti funt, faith Godejc. 

3 c ' s ' Stetvecbius. 

There are divers other ftories to this 
See num. purpofc, but by thefe you may fuffici- 
concenn-' ent ty difcern the common practices of 
ing Ami- this kind. As it is ufual to bring up 
p*!w Birds of prey, as Hawks,Gormorants, 
fu.rt.ut.iz. &c> to an obedience of their keepew; 
c 2 *. fb likewife have (bme attempted itffa 

b?gh£- tne ^ e otner B » r ^ s > teaching them the 
ches. art of carrying meffages. There is a 
»'™tf«s«- (mailer fort of Pigeon, of a light body 
firibvldt, and fwift flight , which is ufually 
* ■ »y. made choice of for fuch partictrtaw; 
5"Ti7 ^ therefore the kind of them is 
' commonly called by the name of 


Messenger. 131 


&ffifret and fmft informations by the 
fpecies of found. 

HAving in the former Chapters 
treated feverally concerning the 
clivers ways of fecrecy and fwiftncis 
in Dilcourfe ; it remains that I now 
enquire(accordingtothe method pro- 
poled) how boththefe may be, joyned 
together in the conveyance of any 
meflage. The refolution of which, 
fb far as it concerns the particulars 
already fpecified, were but needlefs 
to repeat. 

That which does more immediately 
belong to the prefent Quare, and was 
the main occafion of this dilcourfe, 
does refer to other ways of intimation, 
befides thele in ordinary ufe* of 
fpeaking, or writing, or geftures. For 
m the general we maft note, That 
Whatever is capable of a competent di£e- 
tencej fercepme to any fenje f mit 9^ t * 
K 2 fujfcient 

it 2 The Secret and Swift 

fufficient means, xvhtrtby to exprefs the 
Cogitations. It is more convenient 
indeed) that thefe differences fhould 
be of a<pgreat variety as the letters of 
the Alphabetjbut it is fufficient if they 
be but twofold , becaufe two alone 
may, with fomewhat more labour and 
time, be well enough contrived to 
exprefs all the reft. Thus any two 
letters or numbers, fuppofe A .B.being 
tranfpofed through five places, will 
yield thirty two differences, and ib 
confequently will foperabandantly 
ferve for the four and twenty Letters, 
as was before more largely explained 
in the ninth Chapter. 

Now the lenfitive fpecies, whereby 
fuch informations muft be conveyed, 
are either the fpecies of fouitd, or the 
fpecies o{ fight. The Ear a nd the Eye 
being the only fences that are of quick 
perception, when their obje&s are 
De re mm- Vegttius diftinguifheth all fignifi- 
tmritos.%. catory figns into thefe three forts. 


Messenger. 12 ? 

1 . Vocdu. By articulate founds. 

2. Semivocaha. By inarticulate 

$ . Mata. By the fpeeies of fight. 

The two laft of thefe are chiefly 
pertinent to the prefent enquiry. Con- 
cerning which, in the general it may 
be concluded,that any found, whether 
of Trumpets, Bells, Cannons, Drums, 
&c. or any object of fight, whether 
flame,Jinoak,e£s. which is capable ©f 
a double difference,may be a fujficient 
means whereby to communicate the 

The particular application of thefe, 
to fome experiments,! fhalkreat more 
diftinctly in the remainder of this 

Firft, Concerning the fecrecy and Secret and 
fwiftnefs of any meliage by the fpe- ^^^ 
cies of found. Though thefe audible by the 
feeciesbe much flower than thofe of{p eci «of 
fight, yet are they far fwifter than the oun • 
natural motion of any corporeal mef- 
fenger. The chief ufe of thefe, is for 
fuch as are within fome competent 
K j nearnefs, 

1 7 4 The Secret and Swift 

nearnefs^asperhapsamile off.But they 

may alfo by frequent multiplications 

be continued to a far greater diftance. 

There is a relation in Joach. Camera- 

Z7ht'ar. ™»» P f fome ' tllat haVe hear< j their 

de'defeau Friends (peaking to them diftin&ly, 
wcukrum wnen they have been many miles afun- 
der. Hub/ft notos homines jttque leves^ 
non indoclos, qmi affirmabant, fe attditffie 
/emtn coHoquentes diferte, eos quos tutu 
mttltorum milltum paffuum *mffe eerie 
fcirent. But this he juftly refers to 
Diabolical Magick, and the Illufion of 

There are other natural Experi- 
ments in this kind, of more efpecial 
note for their Antiquity. Such wtas 
that of King Xerxes, related by Clee- 
meneSy as he is cited by Cleo- 
Pe rerum medes in libro dt circuits ccelefUbus 
/»o,«»ror. fa fc t Xerxem toto itinere a Perfide 
in Gratciam fiat tones Jlatuijfe, & in its 
homines itaprope,#t vocem alter ius alter 
exatfdiret ; quo modo quadraginta horjt- 
rum Jpatio, ex Gracia in Perfidem res 
nunaaripoterat. But this Invention, 


Messenger. i*r 

befides t^p great trouble and uncer- 
tainty of it,is alfb too grofs for imita- 
tion^ vouring fomewhat of the rude- 
nefs of thofe former and more bar- 
barous Ages. 

Much beyond it was that experi- 
ment of the Romans t in the contrivance 
of theP#?7wall,related by our learned 
Cwbden ; this Wall was built by Briton, de 
Severus in the North part of England, %**£%* 
above a hundred miles long. The wdip^l^ 
Towers of it were about a milediftant Boter.Geog. 
from one another. Betwixt each of wiuShe' 
thefe Towers there patted certain mentions 
hollow pipes or trunks in the curtains a ' fo an( j: 
of the wall , through which the ofl^oo 
Defendants could prefently inform furlongs 
one another of any thing that wa.s mCh,M ' 
neceflary, as concerning that place 
wherein the enemy was moft likely 
to aflault them, &c. 

Since the wall is ruined, and this 
means of fwift advertifement taken 
away , there are many' inhabitants 
thereabouts, which hold their Land 
by a Tenure in Comngt (as the 
K. 4 Lawyers 

1 36* The Secret and Swift 

Lawyers fpeak) being bound by 
blowing of a Horn to difcover the 
irruption of the enemy. 

There is another experiment to this 
Fabui. 9. purpofe mentioned by Walchius, who 
thinks it poflible Co to contrive a trunk 
or hollow pipe, that it fitfll preferve 
the voice entirely for certain hours or 
days, fo that a man may fend his words 
to a friend inftead of his writing,* here 
being always a certain fpace of inter- 
miflion, for the paffage of the voice, 
betwixt its going into thefe cavities, 
and its coming out ; he conceives,that 
if both ends weri feafbnabiy flopped, 
whilft the found was in thermdft, it 
would continue there till it had fome 
vent. Httic tubo verba nofira infttfurre- 
mus , & cum prcbe munitur talelUrio 
commiftamus,&c. When the Friend to 
whom it is lent, fhall receive and open 
it,the words (hall come out diftinaly, 
and in the fame order wherein they 
were fpoken.Frcm fucha contrivance 
as this, (faith the fame Author) did 
Albertus Mugms make his Image, and 



Frier Bacon his Brazen Head, to utter 
certain words. Which conceit (if it 
have any truth) may ierve fomewhat 
to extenuate the grofs abfurdrty of 
that Popifh Relick concerning Jofefh\ 
[Hah] or the noife that he ma3e (as 
other Carpenters ufe) in fetching of a 
blow ; which is faid to be preferred 
yet in a glafs amongft other ancient 

But againft thefe Fancies it is consi- 
derable, that thefpecies of found are 
multiplied in the Air, by a kind of 
continuation and efflux from their firft 

?iriginal, as the fpecies of light are 
rom any luminous body ; either of 
which being once feparated from their 
caufes, do prefently vanifh and die. 
Now as it would be a mad thing for a 
man to endeavour to catch the Sun- 
beams, or inclofe the light ; upon the 
fame grounds like wife rauft it; needs 
be abfurd, for any one to attempt 
the fhutting in of articulate founds : 
Since both of them have equally 
the fame intrinfical and infeparable 



2 8 The Secret and Swift 

dependant* upon their efficient 

True, indeed, thefpecies of found 
may feem to have fome kind of ielf- 
coidnuance in the Air, as in Ecchoes; 
but fo likewife is it in proportion 
with thole of light, as in' the qujck 
tuning round of a fire-ftick, wijich 
will make the appearance of a fiery 
circle : And though the firft kind of 
theie be more lafting than the other, 
by reafbn their natural motion is not 
fo quick, yet neither of them are of 
fucn duration as may be fufEcient for 
the preient enquiry. 

Noneof a If theie inventions already 
fpecified, do fufficiently perform the 
bufinefs that is here enquired after; 
nor are they either fb generally or 
fafely appliable for all places and 

The difcovery that is herepromifed, 
may be further ierviceable for fuch 
cafes as theie. 

Suppofe a Friend were perfidioufly 
clapped up in fome clofeDungeon,and 


Messenger. i^q 

that we did not know exaftly where, 
but could only guefs at the place , 
within the latitude of half a mile or 
fbmewhat more ; a man might ver^ 
diftinclly, by thefe other inventions, 
difcourfe unto him. Or fuppofe a City 
were ftraitly befieged, and there were 
either within it or without it, fuch a 
Confederate, with whom we fhould 
neceflarily confer about Ibme defign ; 
we may by thefe means fafely dicover 
to him our intentions. By which you 
may guefs, that the Meffenger which 
is here imployed , is of lb ftrange a 
nature, as not to be barred out with 
walls, or deterred by enemies. 

To the performance of this, it is 
requtfite that there be two Bells of 
different notes, or fbme fuch other 
audible and loud founds, which we 
may command atpleafure,asMuskets, 
Cannons, Horns, Drums, &c. By the 
various founding of thefe (according 
to the former Table) a man may eafily 
exprefs any letter, arid fb confequently cap. 9. 
any fenfe. 


1 4 o Tt> e Secret and Swift 

Thefe Tables I fhall again repeaein 
this place : That of two letters may 
be contrived thus : 

A. B. C. D. E. 
aaaaa. aaaab. aaaba. aaabb. aabaa. 

F. G. H. I. K. 

aabab. aabba. aabbb- abaaa. abaab. 

L. M. N. O P. 
ababa. ababb. abbaa. abbaj). abbba. 

Q, R. S. T. V- 

abbbb. baaaa, baaab. baaba. baabb. 
W. X. Y. Z. 
babaa. babab. babba. babbb. 

Suppofe the word Vittuals were 
this way to be expreft, let the bigger 
found be reprefented by A, and the 
leffer by B, according to which, the 
word may be thus made up by five of 
thefe founds for each letter. 

V.. I. C. T. U. 

baabb. abaaa. aaaba. baaba. baabb. 

A. I_i. O. 

aaaaa. ababa. baaab. 


Messenger. 141 

That is,the Jeffer note founded once, 
and then the bigger twice, and then 
again the leffer twjce, as (baabb) will 
fignifie the letter ( Y .) So the bigger 
once, and then the lejtfer once, and 
after that the bigger thrice together, 
as (abaaa)will reprelent the letter (I,) 
and fb of the reft. 

If the founds be capable of a triple 
difference , then each letter may be 
exprefled by a threefold found, as may 
appear by t*his other Alphabet. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. 

aaa. aab. aac. baa. bab. bba. bbb. bbc. 

I. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q, 

caa. cba. cbb.cbc. cca. ccb. ccc. aba. 

R. s. r. ,V. w. X. Y. Z. 

abb. abc. aca. acb. ace. bca. bcb. bcc. 

V. I. C T. U. A. L. S. 

acb. caa. aac. aca. acb. aaa. ebb. abc. 

If thefe founds do contain a quintu- 
ple difterence,then may every letter be 
figmfied by two founds only, (which 


141 The Secret and Swift 

will much conduce to the fpeed and 
difpatch of fuch a meffage.) As you 
may fee in this other Table. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. K. L. M. 

aa. ab. ac. ad. ae.>. 
N. O. P. Q. R. S. T.V.WIY.Z. 
cc. cd. ce. da. db dc. 

V. I. C. T. U. A. L. S. 

de. bd. ac. dd. de. aa, ca. dc. 

Defurt.iu 'Tis related by Porta, that when the 
/ 1. c. 6. Citizens in the (jege of Navarre were 
reduced to fuch great extremities that 
they were ready to yield, they did dii- 
cover to their Friends the greatness 
and kind of their wants, by difcharg- 
kig (divers Cannons and Ordinances in 
the night-time, according to a certain 
order before agreed upon 9 and by this 
means did obtain fuch fitting fuppites 
as preferved the City. 


Messenger. 145 


Qomerning a Language that may confifi 
only of Turns and IMufical Notes , 
without any articulate found, 

IF the Mufical Inftrument that is 
tafed to this purpofe , be able to 
exprefs the ordinary Notes, not only 
according to their different Tones ^ but 
their Times alio, then may each Letter 
of the Alphabet be rendred by a (ingle 

Whence it will follow, that a man 
Utay frame a Language, confifting 
only of Tunes and fuch inarticulate 
founds, as no Letters can exprefs. 
Which kind of Speech is fancied to be 
ufual amongft the Lunaiylnhabitants, 
who (as * Domingo Gwfaks hath dif- * Or tte 
covered) have contrived the Letters of JJfJfoon, 
the Alphabet upon the Notes after wnaenby 
Ibffle fuch order as this : * e £ amc ,. 

Author of 
x _, Nuntiuf 

Where Inanimat: 

1 44 The Secret and S#ft 

Where the five Vowels are re- 
prefented by the Minnums on each of 
the five lines, being mod orchem 
placed according to their right order 
and confequence, only the letters K, 
and Q^ are left out, becaufe they may 
be otherwife expreffed. 

According to this Alphabet of 
^ Notes, thele words, Gloria Deofoti, 
9+ ' muft be thus contrived. 

_ 6 lor I ^co/o/t 

By this you may eafily dilcern how 
two Muficians may difcourfe with one 
another,by playing upon their Inftru- 



ments of Mufok, as well as by tafiring 
with their inftruments of Speech. And 
(which is a fingular curiofityjhow the 
wards of a Song may be contrived in 
tie tune of it. 

I fuppole that thele letters and notes 
flight be difpofed to anfwer one ano- 
ther, with better advantage than here 
they aje exprefled. And this perhaps, 
wout8 .be eafie enough for thole that 
are thoroughly verfed" in the grounds 
ofMufick, unto whole further enquiry 
I do fiere only propole this invention. 

But now if thele inarticulate founds 
be contrived for the expreffion, not of 
words and letter s y but of things and no- 
tions, (as was Jbefore explained, con- 
cerning the univerfal Character) then 
might there be fuch a general Lan- 
guage, asfhould be equally fpeakabfe 
by all People and Nations ; and fb we 
might be reftored from the fecond 
general curfe,which is yet manifefted, 
not only in the confufion of venting 
but alfo offptech. 

L The 

[ 45 

{ a6 The Secret and Swift 

The utterance of thefe Mufical tunes 
may ferve for the univerfal Language^ 
and the writin^ot them for the univer- 
fid Character. As all Nations do agree 
in the fame conceit of jthings, fo like- 
wife in the fame conceit of Harmonies. 

This Curiofity (for ought I know)* 
has not yet been mentioned by any 
Author, but it may be (if well consi- 
dered) of fuch excellent uft, as to de- 
ferve a more full and particular' en- 
largement in a Treatife by it felf. 


Messenger. 147 


Ofthofe comtnon relation's that concern 
fecret And frvift informations by the 
(pedes of fight, which are either Fa- 
bulous, or Magical. 

THeufual relations that concern 
fecret and fwift conveyances 
by the fpecies of fight, may be diftin- 
guifhed into fuch as are, either 

1. Fabulous. 

2. -Magical. 

3. Nhturdandtru 

Firftof thofe that are K?£///tw : In 1 .Ofthofe 
yhich kind, that of the Loadffone is ^jjjns 
moft remarkable, as it is maintained to this 
by * Famiamts Strada in his imitation purpofe. 
of Lucretius his ftile,and divers others. J;j u f *' 
The manner that is ufualljf prefcribed " 
for the performance, of it, is thus. Let 
there be two Needles provided, of an 
equal length and bignefs, being both 
of them touched with the fame Load- 
ftone : Let the letters of the Alphabet 
be placed in the circles on which they 
L 2 are 

148 The Secret and Swift 

are moved, as the points of the com- 
pafs under the needle of the Mariners 
Chart. Let the Friend that is to travel 
take one of them with him,firft agree- 
ing upon the days and hours wherein 
they fhould confer together : At 
which times, if one of them move the 
needle of his inftrument to any letter 
of the Alphabet, the other needle, by 
a Sympathy, will move unto the fame 
letter in the other inftrument, though 
they be never fbfar diftant. And thus 
by feveral motions of the needle to 
the letters, they may. eafily make up 
any words or fence whidi they have a 
mind to exprefs. 

utinam h<ec ratio fcribendi prndeat ufu ; 
Cautior & citior properarei epijhla, nullas 
Latronum verita infidw, fixviofque morantes, 
Ipfe fuis princtps znanibus fibi cvnfiunt rem. &c. 

Saith Sirada : l$ut this invention is 
altogether imaginary,having no foun- 
dation in any real experiment. You 
may lee it frequently confuted, in 
ttfole that treat concerning magne- 


Messenger. 140 

tfcal vertues. Non folitm exhibilandi 
funt) fed eti&m male mulffandi Pbilojb' 
fkicti ferula, fabyhrum ifii procttfores, 
fti fuii portentis deterrent homines a 
pracUriflimo caitfarumftadiOf faith Co- M'hfo: 
fans, tcthis purpofe. fJTi'o 

The firftoccafion of thefe relations, 
was'Sfctie proof of that ftrange imma- 
terial powers of the Load ttone, where- 
by it did work through thick and folid 
bodie^as a Table,or Wall, or the like ; 
as alio of that directive vertue, where- 
by it always tends to the poles ; from 
whence others have conjectured, that 
it might be ferviceabk alfo for fiich a 
bufinefs, at fb great a diftance. 

'But againft this, it is considerable, 

1. That every natural agent is fup- 
poted to have fome certain fphere, 
which determines its activity. 

2. That magnetical 1 operations do 
not arile (as Ibrhe fondly conceive) 
from a Sympathetica! conformation 
of natures, which is the lame at all 
diftances ; but from fuch a diffufion of 
thefe magnetical qualities tfweugh 
L $ the 

ico Tht Secret and Swift 

tbe tntMun^ that they may be conti- 
nued from the Agent to the Patient. 
And fo thefe natural powers will nqt 
be of fo great an extent, as they are 
fuppofed in this experiment. 

Theutmcft diftance, at which we 
may difcourfe with another 'by thefe 
magnetical vertues, is two or thrfe 
foot or thereabouts ; and this' we 
may do, though it be through a wall 
S.Ward of that thicknefe. Fieriemmpoffeme 
magmt it dociiit experiential ut ope M.agn<eitu- > <& in- 
ReduB. ftrumenti ad id aptati,amicus cwt amu>p y 
SeeGaUtu i» cubiculo proximo, trans craffuf^mu- 
Phil.Magv. rum (puta bipetdem) colloquatur, mimi 
• 4-«- '*• jftf fenttntiam impertiat, & ad gukfitd 
rejpondeat, f faith a iate Author J But 
in this experiment, it is not only the 
fecondary vertue of the needles that 
can be thus effectual (as is fuppofed in 
the former invention) but there rau£ 
be the help alio of the Loadftone it felf. 
As for the reafbn why thefe mag- 
netical powers are able to work 
through fblid bodies ; 'tis confide»- 
ble, that any quality may be diffufed 



through fuch a fubftance, as hath no 
natural repugnancy unto it. We fee 
the light does pafs as well through hot 
bodies as cold, through Iblid as fluid, 
&c only Opacity keeps it out ; becaufe 
that quality alone is contrary to its 
nature. So likewile is it with magneti- 
cal vertues, which do equally fpread 
themfelves through all kind of bodies, 
whether rare or denfe, diaphanous or 
ofjkcous, there being no quality con- 
trary to this, becaufe it is that general 
endowment of the whole globe, that 
univerfal quality to which all other 
particulars are naturally lubfervient. 

The lecond fort of relations to this 2 Magical 
piirpofe, are fuch as refer to diabolical 
Mn^kk ; of which kind is that inven- 
tion thought to be, which is commoni- 
lyafcribed to Pythagoras, of whom it 
is reported, that he could write any 
thing in the body of the Moon, fo as it 
might be legible to another at a great 
diftance. Jgrippa affirms this to be occtdt.pH- 
naturally poflible, and the way of per- # l ie ' 6 ' 
foftning it, not unknown to himfelf, 
L 4 with 

ijj 7 he Secret and Swift 

with fome others in his time, ^nd 
optu. 7.3. Fridericus Ri/mr feems to believe it; 
S«i ^ fpcaking of the ftrange experi- 
ttrfuapo merits to be wrought by fbme glaffesj 
tmcperva- [j e adds, Demque certo artificio,depiftas 
imagines, aiit fcriptos liter as, Hotfe } fe%e- 
qa, plena lunafis opponi pojfunt, utradiis 
lunam irradiantibus , ideoque reflexis ,, 
videos & legos, qua Conftantinopoli Lu- 
tetian tibi ntmcitntur. 

There is an experiment in Opticfo r 
to reprefent any writing by the Sun- 
beamsjtipon a wall or front of a houft ; 
for which purpofe the letters muft 
be firft defcribed \fopth Wax, or fome 
other opacous colour, upon the fur- 
face of the glafs, in an inverted form ; 
which glafs, afterwards reflecting the 
light upon any wall in the fhade, will 
difcover thefe letters in the right form 
a#d order. Unto fbmefuch invention, 
I did firfr(before I had well confidered 
thefe particulars)attribute the perfor- 
mance of thofe ftrange promifes in 
^°M dm Nuntius inanimatus. But upon better 
J.y, oon ' thoughts,- it will be found, that the 


Messenger. ic> 

fpecies of reflexion, in this experi- 
ment, are fo weak , that unlefs the 
glafsandtbe letters be very big, and 
the wall fbmewhat near, there will 
)je no diftinct appearance of the wri- 
ting. And therefore this way there 
can be no thoughts of contriving any 
reflected fpecies, that fhall be vifible 
at fo great a diftance as the Moon. 
Nor is there any other natural means 
conceivable, by which (b ftrange an 
effecl may be performed,which is the 
reafon that it is fo frequently attri- 
buted to diabolical Magick, by almoft 
all the Writers that have occafion to 
treat of it. 

But Agrippa in another place (peak- 
ing concerning this invention, affirms 
that it was performed thusiPythagoras 
did firft defcribe with blood any let- j^^» 
ters which he thought fit, in fome deV*>nt. 
great glafs, and then oppofing the *'«*■' **• 
glals againft the full Moon, the let- 
ters would appear thorough it, as if 
they were writ in the circumference 
o£ her body, j^f * coUH/uiffet fkagmpt 


I c 4. The Secret and Swift 

perfcripfkinfpeculoy quo t adfkm tummis 
lun& orbtm obverfo,flanti a ttrgojes ex~ 
aratas in d'fco lun<s commoner avit. In 
which paflage he feems to intimate, 
that this writing in the Moon could 
not be vifible at any great diftance 
(as it is related in common Tradition) 
but that it did appear to fuch only, 
betwixt whole eyes and the Moon 
thisglals might be interpofed. And 
according to this the wonder of the 
relation ceafes,nor may it truly be re- 
ferred to Diabolical Magick. More properly reducible to this 
mer * r ,' P iib kind, are thofe inchanted glafles men- 
Pkaan. iTtioned in divert Authors: In which 
deftttorac. fome Magicians are faid to contain 
fuch familiar Spirits , as do inforal 
them of any bufinefs they fhall en- 
quire after. I have heard a great pre- 
tender to the knowledge of all fecret 
Arts, confidently affirm, that he him- 
felf was able at that time , or any 
other, to fhew me ifl a glafs what was 
done in any part of the World, wjbat 
fhips were failing in dxzMediterranwto, 



who were walking in any ftreet of 
any City in Spain, or the ljke. And this 
he did aver, with all the laboured 
e^preflions of a ftrong confidence. 
The man, for his condition, was an 
Italian . Do&or of Phyfick; for his 
parts, he was known to be of extra- 
ordinary skill in the abftruler Arts, 
but not altogether free from the fufpi- 
cionofthis unlawful Magick. 


i 5 6 The Secret and Swift 


Of informations by jignificatory fires and 
fmo&ks. Their Antiquity. The true 
manner of u/ing them to tint purfofi. 
TIM theje were meant in Nuntius 

TH E Experiments of this kind 
that are true, and upon natural 
grounis,have been made either by fire 
in the night, or fmoak and fuch other 
figns vifible at a diftance in the day- 

Thefe informations by fignificacmy 
fires, have been of ancient ufe. The 
firft invention of them is commonly 
afcribed to Sinon in thsTrojan Wars. 
Nst. mft Specularem Jignificationem Tmjano btRo 
7 ' c ' 5 ' Sinon invenit (faith P/iny.) This was 
the fign upon which he agreed to un- 
lock the wooden Horfe. 



-- 1 •• — TUmmxs cum regiapuppA 
Exfttkrat. ■ 


Messenger. 157 

But iDioAorus Siculus -affirms them 
to be practifed by Medea in her tibliotha. 
Confpiracy with ^Jafon. And they* 4, 
are frequently mentioned in other 
ancient Hiftorians. * Herodotus fpeaks * Mp"*- 
of them in the Grecian War againft 1 ' c ' 1 2 " 
Xerxes. ' And f Tbmjdides teftifies t mji. u 2, 
of them in the onlets that were 
made by the Pelopmnefians againft **** /-s " 
Salmis, and in the Siege of Corcyra. 
JppUn fpeafeing of Scipio at Numan- Socurtiu* 
tU, iiow he divided his Camp intoff !exM 
divers Companies , fays that he 
affigned each of them to feraial 
Tribunes, with this charge, Si im- 
peterentur <ib fasftt . Ae die , * panno * To this 
ruhrojn* baft a fbblato figmfotrtnt , de §^ ags 
nofte, igne. If he dnemy aid, charge of truce or 
any of them, they fhould fignifie it1 fcft,nce ' 
to the others, in the day-time by 
holding up a red-cloth, in the night by 
fires. Vtgetim affirms it tofaeufual, oinm-i:. 
when the Army 'Was divided, to tgr " vc ' ' 
inform one another , in the day 
by fmbak, in the night by fires- m- 
Thefe fignificatory fires were by the ££££■; 

Greet mjs hg.y. 

158 The Secret and Swift 

Grecians called $pVro< (faith Suidas) 
and fbmetimes Tlvpanx. The ufe of 

jEueatPo- tnem was c ^iefly for the anfwer of 
kmtt.cii fbme particular Quaye, that was be- 
fore agreed upon ; as concerning the 
coming of Aids or Enemies; if the 
Enemies were coming, they were 
wont to fhake thefe Torches ; if the 
Aids, they held them (till (faith the 
ScholinUi. Scboliaft upon Thucydidts^) 
Thucyd. g ut they have by more exa£r. In- 
ventions, been enlarged to a greater 
latitude of fignifkation. So that now, 
any thing which we have occafion 
to difcover, may be exprefled by 

mchrde them / 

seenttt, The ways by which they- may 
U+.C i. he contrived to this purpofe, are 
fwt'.ut. divers : I fhali fpecifie only the chief 
/. i. c. io of them. 

%t n Re* That whicn m ancient times was 
nm J. 12. ufed by the Grecians, and is particu- 
*' %' ^ r ly heated of in • * Polyb/us , ad- 

By ten 

To***- Let 

Messenger. i*p 

Let the letters be divided into five 
Tablets or Coluras. 


































Let there be provided ten Torches, 
five being placed on the right hand, 
and five on the left : Let Co many 
lurches be lifted up on the right 
hind ,• as may fhew the number of 
the Table ; and ib many on the left, 
as may fhew the number of that 
letter in it, which you would ex- 
prefs: As in this following example, 
wherein the feveral numbers, both at 


1 60 The Secret and Swift 

the right and left hand, do dgnifie the 
word Hasten. 

TheTight hand. 






The left hand. 













That is,two lights being lifted upon 
the right hand, (hew the fecond Go- 
lutnn ; and at the fame time three 
Torches appearing on the left-hand, 
denotes the third letter in thatColumn 
which is HThusja Angle Torch being 
da%overed on both fides, doth fignifie 
the firft letter of the Br ft Column, 
which is A 1 and fo of the reft. 


Messenger. i6"i 

There is another way mentioned By three 
by Jaachimus Fortius, unto the per- ^ rc j) "",. 
formance of which, there are only fmema. 
three lights required: One Torch 
being fhewed alone, (hall fignifie the 
eight firft letters, J.B.C.D.E.F.G.H. 
Two together, the eight next, I.l^.L. 
M.N. 0. P. ^ And all three the reft, 
R.S.T.V. W.XT. Zj 

One light being difcovered once, 
fignifies A ; if twice, B .- Two lights 
being fhewed once , do denote the 
letter/; if twice, 1Q &c. 

According to this way, if I would 
exprefs the word Famine, the 
Torches muft be . contrived ; one 
light muft be lifted up fix times for 
the letter F; one light"* once for A ; 
two lights four times for M\ two 
lights once for J \ two lights five times 

But here it u ill be requisite that 
there be fbme intermiffion betwixt 
the expreflion of feveral letters, be- 
caufe otherwife there muft needs be 
a great confufion amongft thofe that 
M belong 

! 6 2, 77?<? Swrtf and Swift 

belong to the fame number of 
Torches. In which refpeft this way 
is much more tedious and inconve- 
nient than the former invention out 
of Polybius. 
By two It is eafie to conceive, how by the 
Torches. Alphabet corififting of two letters 
tranfpoled through five places, fuch 
a manner ofdifcourfing may be other- 
wife contrived, only by two Torches. 
But then there muft be five fliews, to 
exprefs every letter. 

There is another way of fpeaking, 
by the differences of motion in two 
lights ; which for its quicknels and 
ipeed, is much to be preferred before 
any of the reft ; the manner of it is 
thus : Provide two Torches on long 
poles: Let them be placed fb far ftom 
one another, that they may feem unto 
your confederate to be about four Cu- 
bits diftance. By the divers elevations 
or depreffions of thefe, enclining of 
them to the right hand, or to the left, 
feverally or both together, it is eafie 
to exprefs all the Alphabet. 


Messenger. \6i 

One light alone being difcovered, 
rauft ftand for A ; lifted up, for E ; 
depreffed, fpr /; enclined to the 
right hand, for ; unto the left hand, 
for V. 

Two lights elevated, for B ; de- 
preflfed, for C ; enclined to the right 
hand, for D ; to the left hand, for F. 

Tw$> lights being ftill discovered, 
and the Torch at the right hand 
being lifted up, fhall figmfie G ; be- 
ing depreffed , H ; inclined to the 
right hand, K, ; to the left hand, L. 

TheTorcTi at the left hand, -being 
elevated, (hall ftand for M ; depreffed, 
for N) inclined to the right hand, 
for P ; to the left hand, for ^ 

The Torch at the right hand be- 
ing moved towards the left "hand, and 
that at the left hand, being at the 
fame time moved towards the right 
hand , fhall fignifie R : The right 
hand Torch being inclined to the Ifcft 
hand, and the* other at the fame time 
being elevated, fignifies <£ ; being de- 
preffed, T: The left hand Torch 
M 2 being 

1 6*4 Tl?e Secret and Swift 

being inclined to *he right hand , 
and the other at the fame time be- 
fog elevated, fignifies W\ being de- 
preflTed, X. 

The right hand Torch being in- 
clined to the right hand , and the 
other at the feme time being ele- 
vated, may ftand for T ; being de- 
preffed, for 2^. 

When any thing is thus to be ex- 
prefTed, the two Torches, being dif- 
covered , muft remain without any 
motion, fp long, till the Confede- 
rate fh*ll g by other lightS fhew fbme 
fign, that he i$ ready to take notice. 
After every one of theie particular 
motions, the Torches muft be care- 
fully hidden and o^fcured, that fo 
the feveral letters exprefted by them 
may be the better diftinguifhed. 

The day-time Informations by 
fmoak, cannot lb conveniently be or- 
dered 1 acco: Jlb^ to this latter contri- 
vance, and thin tore muft be mana- 
ged' by ibme of thofe other ways 
that were fpecifiedbefore : To which 


Messenger. 165 

purpofe there muft be fome Tunnels 
provided, for the orderly inclofing 
and conveying up the fmoak. The 
other particulars concerning this, are 
in themfelves eafie enough to be ap- 

How thefe fignificatory figns will 
be vifible at a great diftance. How 
by multiplication of them in feveral 
places, they may be contrived for^f^J' 
many (cores of miles, will eafily be 
difcerned from the {jtuation and ufe 
of Beacons, by which the intima- 
tions of publkk danger and prepa- 
rations, have been oftentimes fudden- 
ly (bread over this whale Ifland. 

This may further be advantaged 
by the ufe of SahUus his perfpe- 

'Tis ftoried of the Inhabitants in ^?«w 
ChiHx, ehat when any Merchants do ^'* v 
happen upon the fhores of that King- 
dom, they are prefentlj; examined, 
whence they come, what Commo- 
dities they bring, and of what num- 
ber they are : Which being known, 
M 1 the 

1 66 The Secret and Swift 

the Watch (fet for that purpofe) do 

prefently inform the Kii'g of their 

anfwcrs, by fmoafc in the day, and 

fires in ihe night : Who by the fame 

means does as fpeedily return them 

his pleafure, whether they fhall be 

admitted or kept out : And fb that 

is eafily cftfpajtched in fome few hours, 

which could not be performed the 

ordinary way, without the trouble of 

many days. 

The pra&ife of all thele fecret and 

fwift Meflages, may perjwps feem 

very difficult at the firft ; but fb does 
poiyb. lie alfo thc Art of WritiHg aqd R ea di n g 

to an unlettered man : Cuftom and 
experience will make the one as facile 
and ready as the other.. 

That thele ways of information 
already explained, whether by the 
fpecies of found or fight, are die fame 
With thofe intimated in Nuntitnin- 
animAtusy may be clearly evident 5 to 
any one wrjo does but thoroughly 
perufe that difcoilife, and compare it 
with divers other the like paflages, 


Messenger. \£y 

of the fame Author, in his Domingo 

i. For the fpecies of found, his 
words are thefe , Auribus nihil per- Nunc, ina- 
cipi nifi perfonum, ntmintm fugit . Erit ni -V-*6. 
igttur neceffe ut is, tut aliquid audifu 
mediant e nunciatum fuerit t fonos audi 'at 9 
eofque difiinguibiles pro numero audien- 
dorum ; qua cumfint in f nit a, infinity 
etiam fit oportet , fonorum edendorum 
varietas. Satis tamen erit ut diftin- 
guantur vel^enere, i/el tempore^ modo 
etiam & numero. W hich paflage, to- 
gether with that other invention in 
Domingo Gonfales, concerning the Lan- 
guage of the Lunary Inhabitants , 
before explained in the eighteenth 
Chapter: I lay, both thefe, being 
compared with the difcoveries and 
experiments of the lame kind that are 
here difcourfed of, may plainly mani- 
feft, that they are both performed by 
the fame means. 

2. For the Species of fight, his 
words are thefe, Si ofalis amici ab- Nunc. in*- 
fentii aliquid cupis -mprefentare, idque nim V' t6 ' 
M 4 eitius 

1^8 'the Secret and Swift 

citius quam corpus aliquod fublunare ad 

locum tarn longo intervtRo disjmtftum 

pofjit per fori; oporttt ut ides, five 

fornix vifibiles , nugtantur quantitate, 

multiplictntur numno , d? pro rtrum 

figmficandarum varietate varientur, vel 

qualrtatr, vel quantitate, vtlfitu, vel 

ordine.Whkh paflage being compared 

with that other way of compaft, be- 

Man in twixt Gonfdts and his Man Dkgo, 

the Moon, mentioned in the other Difcourfe : It 

*' ar may evidently appear, that the ways 

of intimation which were there 

meant, are performed after the fame 

manner, according to which they are 

here difcourfed of. 

He does indeed mention out of Buf- 
bequius, the pra&ice of thole informa- 
tions amongft the Inhabitants of China, 
and thinks that they were ufed too by 
the Remans; but uithall he wonders, 
how that now amongft us>they fhould 
be altogether forgotten ; and the re- 
ftoring of them to thele places and 
times, feems to be his chief aim, in 
the promifes of that difcourfe. 


Messenger. 169 

The particular example which he 
mentions, is this : Suppofe that one at 
London would fend a mefTage to Bri- 
fiow, Wells, Exeter j or though it were 
any remoter place : Neque enim Ion- 
ginquitatem via multtim moror } (i detur 
facultas Jiernendi) & permeabilent effi- 
ciendi. That is, the greatnefs of di- 
ftance can be no impediment, if the 
fpace betwixt be fitted with fuch high 
Mountains,, and Beacon Hills, as may 
ferve for thefe kind of Difcoveries. 
Suppofe (I fay) thiaMeflenger fhould 
fet forth from London, in the wery 
point of noon t he would notwith- 
flanding arrive at Briftow before 
twelve ofcthe clock that day : That 
is, a MefTage may by thefe mearw be 
comreyed ib great a diftance, in fewer 
minutes than thole which make the 
difference betwixt the two Meridians 
of thofe places. 

If according to this, we fhould in- 
terpret that paflage out of Trithemius, 
concerning the three Saturnine An- See before 
gels, that in twenty four hours can caj>. 15. 


7 o The Secret and Swift 

convey news from any part of the 
World; .that Author might then, 
in one refpeft, be freed from the 
afperfion of Diabolical Magick, which 
for this very reafbn hath heretofore 
been imputed to him. But this by the 

It may be, the refolution of thofe 
great prorrifes in Nuncius Inanimates, 
to luch eafie caufes as they are here 
afcribed unto, will not be anfwerable 
to mens expectation, every one will 
be apt to miltruit (bine greater matter 
than is here expreft : But 'tis thus 
alio, in every other the like particular; 
for Ignorance is the mother of Won- 
der, and Wonder does ufually create 
unto it felf many wild Imaginations, 
which is the re'afon why mens Fancies 
are ib prone to attribute all unufual 
and unknown Events, unto ftranger 
caufes than either Nature or Art hath 
defigned for them. 


Messenger. 17 i 


The Poets have feigned Mercury to h«*. /. r. 
be the chief Patron of Thieves and od - I0 - 
Treachery, ^. 

Homer, in 

To which purpofe they relate that km. c«»« 
he filched from Venus her Girdle, as fa- 
ille embraced him in congratulation 
of a Victory ; that he robbed Jupiter 
of his Scepter, and would haveftoln 
his Thunderbolt too , but that he 
feared to burn his fingers. And the 
Aftrologers obferve, that thofe who 
are born under this Planet, are natu- 
rally addicted to Theft and Cheating. 

If it be feared that this Difcourfe 
may unhappily advantage others, in 
fuch unlawful courfes ; 'tis confidera- 
ble,that it does not only teach how to 
deceive, but conlequently alfo how to 
difcover Delulions. And then befides, 
the chief experiments are of fuch 


172 77;? Secret and Swift, Sec. 

nature,that they cannot be frequently 
practifed, u ithout juft caufe of fufpi- 
cion, when as it is in the Magiftrates 
power to prevent them. However, it 
will not follow, that every thing muft 
be fuppreft which may be abufed. 
There is nothing hath more occafi- 
oned Troubles and Contention, than 
the Art of Writing,which is the reafbn 
why the Inventor of it is fabled to have 
c*s. Mo- fown Serpents Teeth : And yet it was 
mntiq.Lea. but a barbarous a£t of Thamns, the 
i a, c. iy. £gjp t j a// King, therefore to forbid the 
learning of Letters: We may as well 
cut out our Tongues , becaufe that 
James 3. member is a world of tpukednf/s. If 
all thofe ufeful Inventions that are 
lia*ble to abufe, fhould therefore be 
concealed, there is not any Art or 
Science which might be lawfully pro- 

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New, Hftory, PhiUfipby, Poetry, Maficf^, Trtmflatitns, &c. 
Vol. II. September 1693. Where are to be had Compleat Sen 
for the Year 1692. or Single ones, for lift Year. 

An Anfwer ro'the Late King James't Declaration, dated 
at St GerrAHns , April the 7th. S- N. 1693. Licenfed by 
Mr. Secretary Trenchird. 

Reflections upon the Late Horrid Confpiracy contrived 
by the French Court, to N'urthtr Hii Majefty in Flanders; 
And for v.^ich Monfieur G> andvaS,one of the AflaflinateS 
was Execii'ed. ^ 

An Account. of the 'ate Terrible Earthquake in Sicily ; 
with m. 1 of its Particulars. Dane from the Italian Copy 
printed !•: Rome. 

Reflations upon two Pamphlets lately published; one 
failed a Letter from Monfi'ur de Crofs, concerning the 
M-mci-s o/Chriftendom. An 1 t^e other,^» stnfoertp thai 
Litter. Pretended to hare been written by the Author of 
the faid Memoirs. By a Lover of Truth. 

A t ue and exadiwccount of the retaking a Ship called, 
The Friend's Adven'ure of TopQum, from the French, 
after (he hsd been taken fix days, and 'they weie upon the 
Coafts 0fFr.1r.ce *i:h it four days ; where one Engl ifh-man 
and a Boy fet upon feven French men, killed two of them, 
took the other fire P ifoners, and brought the Ship and 
them C.fc to England, &s. 

Ncvtl Pain's Letter, snd fome other Letters that con- 
cern the.Suhjeci of his Letter. With (hort Notes on 
theni ; for the Clearer Information of the Members of 
Parliament , In Order to Nevil Pain't Tryal. 

The Speech of the Right Honourable Henry Etrl of 
W-irrsn^ttn, Lord Delamtre, to the Grand Jury at cbefter. 
April 13. 1692. 

Tlie Charge of the Right Honourable Henry Earl of 
Warrington, to the Grand Jury at the Qumer-Seflions 
held for the County of Cbefter, on the iith of O&ober 

A Pr '.-):&. of a Defcent upon France. By a Perfon of